10 • Lesson 1 Word List


(n) 1. Sharpness or harshness of manner.
There was a noticeable asperity in her voice as she scolded the children for teasing Andrea.

2. Roughness of surface; unevenness.
Running my fingers over the new countertop, I detected a certain asperity.


(n) A person or thing that destroys or causes harm.
Juanita’s little brother was the bane of our slumber party.

baneful (adj) Causing destruction or ruin.
Hitler’s baneful rule ended with his death in 1945.


(n) A person who often makes attempts to be funny; a clown; a fool.
Although he acted like a buffoon at parties, Matt was usually rather serious.


(adj) Mournful or full of sorrow; causing grief.
The doleful look on her face told me she had not gotten the grant to go to the summer program.


(n) A person whose attention is focused on others and on what is going on around her or him, rather than on her or his own feelings.
Rachit is an extrovert now, but he was rather shy as a young child.

extroverted (adj)
Because she is so extroverted, she loves to perform in front of a large crowd.


(adj) Excessively bright and flashy; tastelessly glaring.
I told Li that his tie was too garish to wear to a job interview.


(n) A group or system in which positions of power are ranked, usually from lowest to highest.
In the state government hierarchy, the governor is at the top.


(v) To fill completely with a feeling or idea; to inspire.
The really great athletes are imbued with a desire to excel.


(v) To stir up or urge on; to provoke.
Because Sabina was jealous of Dara’s friendship with Taisha, she instigated an argument between them.


(n) A strong attraction or leaning.
Mae’s parents shared a penchant for crossword puzzles and made a ritual of doing them together every Sunday morning.


(adj) Behaving in a wild and unruly manner.
When the puppies get too rambunctious in their play, the trainer separates them.


(n) The list of pieces an actor, musician, etc., is ready to perform; the skills or accomplishments of a person or group.
The band knew most of the requests, but several songs were not part of its repertoire.


(n) 1. A basic principle or skill.
This book teaches the rudiments of cooking, but it will not make you a master chef.

2. An undeveloped or beginning stage.
The rudiments of the club’s plan to raise money seemed promising until we realized how unrealistic they were.


(v) 1. To weaken or ruin by degrees.
His habit of staying up all night seriously undermined his health.

2. To attack by indirect, secret, or underhanded means.
During World War II, the French underground sought to undermine the Nazi occupation.


(adj) Not stopping or slowing down; constant.
The unremitting sounds of the city kept me awake in my room all night.

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