10 • Lesson 10 Word List


(v) To declare or be evidence of something as true, genuine, or accurate.
The constant long lines at Romolo’s bakery attest to its popularity.


(n) A statement or principle that requires no proof because its truth is obvious.
My pleasure-loving aunt believes in the axiom that no one lives forever.

axiomatic (adj)
The fact that no one can be in two places at once is axiomatic.


(adj) Lacking good manners; rude, impolite.
Barrett’s churlish remarks started an altercation.


(v) To make up, prepare, or invent.
We were able to concoct a delicious meal from the leftovers in the refrigerator.

concoction (n)
The drink he created was a concoction of mango, pineapple, and grapefruit juice.


(n) Something that grows out of or results from an earlier form or condition.
The artificial sweetener saccharin is a derivative of coal tar.

(adj) Based on what has gone before; lacking originality.
The artist’s work is derivative of the Flemish school of painting.


(v) 1. To see the difference; to distinguish.
The twins looked so much alike I could not differentiate between them.

2. To be or make different.
Her expressive way of playing the piano differentiated her from the other contestants.


(v) To criticize in a negative, disrespectful manner.
I didn’t mean to disparage your relationship with Corey when I said that he was not a loyal person.

disparaging (adj)
Her disparaging remarks about his artwork did not discourage him from applying to art school.


(v) 1. To break up and spread out so thinly as to disappear; to scatter or be scattered.
The sun dissipated the morning fog.

2. To spend or use foolishly.
He dissipated his inheritance in six months and has now incurred heavy debts.


(adj) Not generally known or understood; familiar to only a relatively small number of people.
Arabic used to be so esoteric that almost no one in America studied it, but it has become much more popular recently.


(adj) Relating to the sense of smell.
His olfactory sense told him that he was close to a chocolate factory.


(n) Too great a number; an excess.
Of the plethora of suggestions, there were a few that were useful.


(v) To make like new; to renovate.
We refurbished the guest room before our cousins came to stay with us.


(v) 1. To produce and give off.
Enzymes secreted by the stomach aid in digestion.

2. To place so as to be hidden from view; to conceal.
The money was secreted in a hidden compartment of the suitcase.


(n) A departure from the normal, expected course; a whim or unpredictable action.
The vagaries of the marketplace make it difficult to predict how well the stock market will perform each year.


(adj) 1. Evaporating quickly.
Gasoline is a volatile substance.

2. Changing readily; explosive; unpredictable.
Emotions run high when people discuss a volatile subject like politics.

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