10 • Lesson 11 Word List


(adj) Having to do with farming or agriculture.
At the state fair, everyone was talking about the grain harvest and other agrarian concerns.


(v) To grow and expand rapidly; to flourish.
The burgeoning population of Las Vegas puts a strain on the area’s resources.


(n) A sudden and violent change; a catastrophe.
It would take a long time to rebuild the city of New Orleans after the cataclysm of Hurricane Katrina.

cataclysmic (adj)
The area survived several cataclysmic events, including a tornado and a flood.


(adj) Having to do with cooking.
Julia Child, a well-known cookbook author and chef, had a great deal of culinary expertise.


(v) To attack the reputation of; to criticize in a derogatory manner.
The sales manager denigrated his competitors’ products.


(n) A person who likes fine food and is a good judge of its quality.
To his great satisfaction, the meal Yang had spent hours preparing was fit for a gourmet.

She is willing to spend the extra money to go to gourmet restaurants because she loves good food.


(adj) Using lofty or pompous speech or expression.
He began in grandiloquent fashion by addressing his listeners as “My fellow toilers in the vineyard of scientific truth.”

grandiloquence (n)
The grandiloquence of her writing was meant to impress her teacher.


(n) 1. The offspring of two animals or plants of different species or varieties.
The sweet-corn hybrid is disease resistant.

2. Anything that is of mixed origin or composition.
The committee is a hybrid; it consists of people from all the performing arts.

Creole is a hybrid language composed of French, Spanish, and African dialects.


(adj) Having many different kinds, forms, or parts.
As head of the student council, her duties were manifold: She did everything from stuffing envelopes to addressing the PTA.


(adj) Acceptable or pleasing, especially to the sense of taste.
Although raw fish didn’t sound very appetizing to me, it was, in fact, surprisingly palatable.


(n) Something that is supposed to cure all ills or difficulties; a cure-all.
Nuclear power plants were once hailed as the panacea for the world’s energy problems.


(adj) Of or pertaining to the common people; common; unrefined.
Although she was from a plebeian family, she was highly educated and had managed to travel a great deal.


(n) Something that causes great pain and suffering; a social evil.
The scourge of incurable disease affects populations worldwide.

(v) To punish severely; to devastate.
Long ago, employers were allowed to scourge their workers for the smallest mistakes.


(n) A halt in a struggle because both sides are equally strong and neither side will give in; a deadlock.
Both parties left the room when the negotiations turned into a stalemate.


(adj) Mild, moderate; restrained.
Josh doesn’t like living in a temperate climate; he prefers the extreme heat of the tropics.

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