10 • Lesson 13 Word List

adjunct

(n) Something or someone joined or added to something else but not essentially a part of it.
The roadside stand was an adjunct to the orchard’s pick-your-own-apples business.

belie

(v) To give a false impression of; to contradict.
His temperate tone belied the inflammatory content of his speech.

carnage

(n) Great destruction of life; slaughter.
An entire generation recoiled in horror from the carnage of World War I.

dilemma

(n) A problem that seems to have no satisfactory solution; a difficult choice.
His dilemma was whether to go to his daughter’s play or his son’s recital, both of which were on the same night.

compete
diverse*

(adj) Differing from one another; having various or distinct parts.
The fair had a diverse selection of food; everything from Italian and French to Ethiopian and Indian cuisine was available.

diversity (n)
When I hear the various languages people speak on the streets of my neighborhood, I am struck by its diversity.

eradicate

(v) To get rid of; to uproot.
The goal of the literacy project is to eradicate illiteracy.

flout

(v) To ignore in a disrespectful or scornful way.
Miranda flouted convention by wearing jeans to graduation.

foment

(v) To stir up, to rouse; to instigate.
In the 1960s, anti-war activists fomented student demonstrations and strikes that shook the Johnson and Nixon administrations.

insurrection

(n) An open revolt against legal authority; a rebellion.
According to Lincoln, the Confederacy’s withdrawal from the Union was an insurrection.

mandatory

(adj) Ordered by an authority; required.
Courses in English, math, and science are mandatory for all first-year students.

compete
mitigate

(v) To make or become less serious or severe; to ameliorate.
The unusually warm weather mitigated the effects of the ice storm by melting all the ice and snow.

pretext

(n) An effort to conceal the real intention or state of affairs; an excuse.
The five-year-old made a pretext of wanting to see my sandwich and then grabbed it and ran off, giggling.

singular

(adj) 1. Denoting a single person or thing, contrasted to more than one.
The pronoun “I” is singular; “we” is plural.

2. Extraordinary; exceptional.
Audiences were captivated by the singular beauty of Aretha Franklin’s voice.

3. Strange or unusual.
Sherlock Holmes referred to the bizarre circumstance as his most singular case.

somnolent

(adj) 1. Tending to cause sleepiness.
The motion of the train had a somnolent effect, and I had to shake myself to stay alert.

2. Drowsy.
After many hours on duty, going on rounds made the young doctor even more somnolent.

compete
stalwart

(adj) 1. Strong; sturdy.
The football squad was as stalwart a group as I’d seen in a long time.

2. Firm; resolute.
The American Civil Liberties Union is a stalwart defender of the Bill of Rights.

compete

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