10 • Lesson 17 Word List


(n) A group of things gathered into a whole; sum total.
The aggregate of human experience had been compressed into that one extraordinary volume.

(adj) Calculated by combining units or items.
The company’s aggregate earnings for the fourth quarter were lower than expected.


(v) 1. To set aside for a specific purpose; to allot.
Courtney allocated at least one hour a day to exercise.

2. To distribute according to a plan.
Ramon allocated his extra money to three charities.


(v) 1. To predict future events, especially from omens.
From the animal’s strange behavior, the farmer could augur the imminent arrival of bad weather.

2. To give promise of.
These laudatory reviews augur well for the success of Ling’s play.


(n) 1. A fortified area or position; a person, place, or thing that is a source of strength.
The math advisor was a bastion of strength for students who were taking the advanced placement test.

2. Something that is considered a stronghold.
English novelist Mary Ann Evans used the pseudonym George Eliot for her work at a time when literature was largely a male bastion.


(n) Suitable, proper behavior or speech.
Talking loudly during a movie shows a lack of decorum.


(adj) No longer existing or functioning.
The typewriter store, once a thriving business, is defunct now that computers have become popular.


(n) A lack of order; confusion.
It was hard to find anything on Sonje’s desk because it was in complete disarray.


(adj) Calm, peaceful, and happy; prosperous.
Cassandra remembered the halcyon days when she was a little girl, playing with her best friend, Anissa.


(n) A lecture, usually long, on how to behave morally.
Ms. Perkins was known for frequently delivering homilies to students who treated others rudely.


(n) Extravagant exaggeration.
Charisse was using hyperbole when she described Tyree as being as tall as a giraffe.


(v) To plead for persistently.
Lynette repeatedly importuned Chrissy to go shopping with her.


(n) Legal authority to govern or control.
The federal government has jurisdiction over the nation’s air-traffic-control system.


(v) To think over again and again; to ponder.
I spent weeks ruminating about the meaning of Kafka’s novella The Metamorphosis.

rumination (n) The act of pondering; reflection.
Einstein’s ruminations led him to challenge common perceptions of time and space.


(n) Reckless boldness without regard to danger or opposition.
Desmond did not have the temerity to correct his French teacher’s faulty pronunciation.


(v) To separate and remove what is undesirable and leave what is desirable; to blow away the chaff from grain.
It was Nadia’s job to interview potential employees, winnow out the unqualified candidates, and recommend the qualified candidates for a second interview.

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