10 • Lesson 19 Word List


(adj) Responsive; willing to be controlled or to take advice.
The director was amenable to our suggested changes in the schedule and implemented them promptly.


(v) To attribute to a source or a cause.
The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, some of which are ascribed to Shakespeare; the authorship of the others is unknown.


(n) A special quality in a person that inspires devotion or fascination in others.
Charisma is a definite asset if you’re running for office.

charismatic (adj)
Popular leaders tend to be highly charismatic.


(n) Scarcity; a shortage.
There was a dearth of good restaurants around the waterfront until the city extended the subway there.


(v) To destroy the morals or morale of someone; to weaken the spirit or courage of someone.
The band members were demoralized by the poor attendance at their final concert.


(adj) Bubbling with enthusiasm or high spirits.
Ebullient fans, ecstatic over their team’s victory, carried the captain of the team off the field in triumph.

ebullience (n)
Ree’s natural ebullience always cheers me up when I feel low.


(n) An individual who manages and takes the risk of a business.
The Small Business Administration gives loans and advice to entrepreneurs starting new businesses.

entrepreneurial (adj)
Vanessa’s entrepreneurial spirit became apparent when she organized an alternative to the school’s lunch provider.


(adj) Foolish; silly; stupid.
Jiya was annoyed at Malcolm for the fatuous grin with which he greeted her every suggestion.


(n) A person or thing that is a symbol or sign of what is to come.
According to American tradition, the appearance of a groundhog’s shadow on February 2 is a harbinger of six more weeks of winter.


(adj) Of a similar kind or nature; uniform throughout.
The walking club was made up of a homogeneous group of middle-class, working mothers.

homogeneity (n)
Too much homogeneity in the book group makes for a boring discussion.


(n) One who occupies an office or position.
George Washington was the first incumbent of the U.S. presidency.

(adj) 1. Currently in office.
The incumbent mayor has only been in office since her election last year.

2. (Used with on or upon.) Resting upon as a duty or obligation.
It is incumbent upon the new teacher to win the respect of her students.


(n) A society that is headed by a female.
African elephants live in a matriarchy that excludes males from the herd when they reach about five years old.

matriarchal (adj)
Honeybees live in matriarchal colonies organized around a queen bee.


(n) A beginner; a novice.
Most students in the playwriting class were neophytes who had never written a play before.


(n) A special right limited to a person, group, or office; a privilege.
It is the governor’s prerogative to pardon convicted felons.


(n) One of two or more people who have the same parents; brother or sister.
Sila had seven siblings: three sisters and four brothers.


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