10 • Lesson 2 Word List


(v) To hear and decide judicially; to judge.
Because her case was still being adjudicated, the defendant didn’t want to speak to the press.

adjudicator (n)
Anne is trained as an adjudicator in marital disputes.


(n) A one-hundredth anniversary or its celebration.
The nation celebrated its centennial in 1876, one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776.

(adj) Of or pertaining to a period of one hundred years.
A centennial fair celebrated the town’s one-hundredth birthday.


(n) 1. A person’s face; the expression on a person’s face.
Luke’s countenance was doleful when he heard the news that the class trip was cancelled.

2. Support or approval.
The teacher cannot plan the field trip without the principal’s countenance.

(v) To support or approve; to tolerate.
The school board will not countenance a shorter school day.


(v) To make dissatisfied; to put in a bad mood.
The employees, who haven’t been given a raise in over two years, are disgruntled and want an increase in pay.


(n) A state of balance.
The United States government is most effective when its executive, legislative, and judicial branches are all working in equilibrium.


(v) To speed up a process; to facilitate.
The company hired additional workers to expedite the delivery of holiday orders.

expeditious (adj) With great speed; quick and efficient.
Because we were catering two parties back-to-back, we had to work in an expeditious manner.


(v) 1. To encircle, bind, or surround.
He girded his waist with a wide leather belt.

2. To get ready for action; to brace.
As 1941 drew to a close, the United States girded itself for a war of unremitting ferocity.


(adj) 1. Not called for; unnecessary.
The violence in that movie was gratuitous because it didn’t add to the plot.

2. Without charge; free.
Did you think the skating lessons would be gratuitous, or did you expect to pay for them?


(adj) Unreal or imagined; deceiving.
His chances of getting a good grade on the test were illusory because he had not studied at all.


(adj) Incapable of being placated, soothed, or significantly changed; relentless.
Despite Gina’s apologies, Lupe still felt hurt by her friend’s betrayal and remained implacable.


(n) 1. A source of light, especially from the sky, such as the sun or moon.
The moon far outshines all other luminaries in the night sky.

2. A person who is well known for her or his achievements; a celebrity.
The Academy Awards presentations were attended by many Hollywood luminaries.


(n) A public statement explaining the intentions, motives, or views of an individual or group.
In their 1848 Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outlined their philosophies about class and economics.


(v) To fascinate or hypnotize.
The agile, death-defying moves of the trapeze artist kept the audience mesmerized during her performance.


(n) An act or statement that may serve as an example or justification for a later one.
The successful revolt of the American colonies provided a precedent for the French Revolution.


(adj) Not genuine; false.
Spurious reports that Elvis Presley was alive kept appearing in the tabloids.

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