10 • Lesson 20 Word List


(v) To approach and speak to in an aggressive or challenging way.
When Greta was leaving the store, the owner accosted her and asked her what was in her tote bag.


(n) Greed for wealth.
Gi’s avarice led her to overcharge her customers for her services as a consultant.


(v) To cheat out of what is due.
Marcos hired a neighbor to mow his lawn and then bilked him out of the fee they had agreed upon.


(adj) Extremely skilled; complete or perfect.
Devin was a consummate cook who had received several awards for her culinary creations.

(v) To bring to a satisfactory conclusion; to complete.
School officials were relieved to consummate the lengthy process of debating the school dress code with a majority vote to modify it.


(adj) (used with with) Having knowledge or experience; well informed.
Are you conversant with Einstein’s theory of relativity?


(adj) Willing to believe things with only slight or no evidence; easily convinced.
The credulous crowd listened with rapt attention to the reports of UFO abductions.

credulity (n)
We were appalled at Devansh’s credulity; he accepted Bryna’s tall tales without asking a single question.


(n) A feeling of great happiness or well-being.
Jared was overcome with euphoria when he found out that he was going to be cast in a movie.

euphoric (adj)
The Italian nation was euphoric when its team won the World Cup.


(adj) 1. Happening by lucky chance; accidental.
The old friends ran into each other at the bookstore, and after their fortuitous meeting, they decided to go to a movie together.

2. Lucky or fortunate.
It was fortuitous that Leon was outside an umbrella shop just as the downpour began.


(adj) Based on something that is not actual but assumed or supposed.
Zoe considered the hypothetical question of what she would wish for if she were granted three wishes.

hypothesis (n) A supposition or tentative explanation for purposes of argument, further study, or investigation.
Cristina tested the hypothesis that plants grow better in natural light than they do in fluorescent light.


(adj) Not connected; confused; rambling.
Because the lecturer had no time to prepare for her talk, she delivered an incoherent speech that was hard to follow.

incoherence (n)
Because of the incoherence of Jimar’s argument, it was difficult to trace his logic.


(adj) Very small in size or importance.
Tyrone added just a minuscule amount of chili pepper to the soup because his mother doesn’t like it when it’s too spicy.


(n) An agreeable, casual remark.
Whitney and Yvette didn’t know each other very well, so when they ran into each other on the street, they would simply exchange pleasantries about their families and the weather.


(v) To put off until later.
Instead of starting her homework as soon as she came home, Aneko usually procrastinated by watching TV or calling friends first.

procrastination (n)
Because of Ian’s procrastination, the tickets to the concert were sold out by the time he called to order them.


(n) A feeling of uneasiness as to whether what one is doing is right or wise; a misgiving.
Noah had qualms about accepting money for shopping for his elderly neighbor.


(n) A mark of shame or disgrace.
After she was caught cheating on the test, Sasha had to deal with the stigma of being seen as dishonest.

stigmatize (v) To give a bad name to.
Some people object to publicizing arrest records because they fear that innocent people will be stigmatized.

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