10 • Lesson 4 Word List


(n) An expression of approval or respect for special merit; an award.
In England, knighthood is a high accolade given for service to the state.


(adj) Not yielding; firm.
I missed the TV show because of my mother’s adamant refusal to let me watch television before I’m done with my homework.


(v) To flatter or admire excessively; to idolize.
Teenagers adulate the new pop star who has sold a record number of albums.

adulation (n)
Members of the crowd showed their adulation by giving the performers a standing ovation.


(n) A loud and determined dispute; a noisy quarrel.
After the hockey player purposely tripped a member of the opposing team, an altercation broke out.


(n, pl) A historical record of events, often arranged in a yearly sequence.
I can easily research the history of my town because its annals have been preserved consistently since 1685.


(adj) Diligent and persistent.
Mimi was the most assiduous researcher in our biology lab.


(adj) Exercising caution; hesitant.
Be chary about making promises you might not be able to keep.


(n) A small, exclusive group; a group held together by like interests or purpose.
The new student found it difficult to fit in at the high school because many of the students there belonged to cliques that didn’t welcome newcomers.


(adj) Worn out from use; broken down.
The decrepit buildings were torn down and replaced with a modern apartment complex.


(v) To provide with a quality, a thing, or a gift of money.
Romina was endowed with a beautiful singing voice.

endowment (n)
The college receives much of its support from endowments established by alumni.


(adj) Lasting a very short time.
The pleasures of our few days in the mountains were ephemeral, with only a faint memory remaining.


(v) To gain the favor of someone through a deliberate effort.
He attempted to ingratiate himself with his teacher by helping out after class.


(n) A group of people held in high esteem for their great achievements.
Albert Einstein is one of the most famous figures in the pantheon of great scientists.


(adj) 1. Turned away from what is right; wicked.
He gets a perverse satisfaction from making people angry.

2. Stubbornly opposing what is right or reasonable; obstinate.
The nineteenth-century French writer George Sand was considered perverse in her day because she refused to stay married, wore masculine attire, and had a successful career.

perversity (n)
Her frequent wintertime swims in the ocean, against her doctor’s advice, revealed her perversity.


(n) Instruction, protection, or guardianship.
I prepared for the test under the tutelage of my math teacher.


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