10 • Lesson 8 Word List

adjacent*

(adj) Near or next to; adjoining.
The two couples requested adjacent rooms when they checked into the hotel.

compete
beset

(v) 1. To surround or to attack repeatedly.
Mosquitoes beset the campers as soon as they entered the woods.

2. To trouble or weigh down.
Some veterans were beset by a variety of ailments after they returned home from the war.

cede

(v) To give up or transfer, especially by treaty or formal agreement.
France ceded vast territories to the United States as part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.

circuitous*

(adj) Roundabout; indirect.
Before the Panama Canal was completed in 1914, ships had to travel a circuitous route around South America.

compete
desultory

(adj) Proceeding or carried out in an aimless or random way.
After my best friend moved away, our phone conversations became more and more desultory.

galvanize

(v) To excite or arouse action.
The discovery of gold in California galvanized Easterners to go West to seek their fortunes.

implement*

(n) A tool or instrument.
My father keeps his woodworking implements in the tool shed.

(v) To carry out.
The governor implemented his plan for health-care reform as soon as he took office.

inconsequential

(adj) Lacking importance or worth; unable to make an impact; trivial.
The issue of cafeteria hours seemed so inconsequential that I didn’t bother to raise it at the meeting.

magnitude

(n) Greatness of size, power, or influence.
The magnitude of the success of her book thrilled the author.

materialize

(v) 1. To become real or actual.
When offers of financial support did not materialize, I was forced to abandon the research project.

2. To appear in physical form, especially suddenly.
The trapped miners were about to abandon hope when the rescue crew materialized.

muster

(n) A gathering, usually of military forces.
The evening muster of the troops was held at 6:00 p.m. sharp.

(v) To summon or call forth; to gather.
Sam wanted to ask for a raise but couldn’t muster the courage to ask his boss.

prohibitive*

(adj) Serving to restrain action or discourage use of.
Many students couldn’t attend the concert because the ticket prices were prohibitive.

compete
reminisce

(v) To think or talk about one’s past.
My grandparents like to reminisce about when they were our age.

reminiscence (n) The act of remembering; a recollection.
Reminiscences often blur with time.

reminiscent (adj) Suggestive of something else.
The land where the family settled was reminiscent of the Welsh valleys they had left behind.

compete
vanguard

(n) The leading or forward position in a movement.
Andy Warhol was in the vanguard of the pop art movement.

visionary*

(n) A person who is given to ideas that are not currently realistic; a dreamer.
Nelson Mandela was a South African visionary who made ending apartheid his life’s work.

(adj) Able to see what might be accomplished in the future.
President Kennedy had the visionary goal of landing people on the moon.

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