11 • Lesson 15 Word List


(n) One whose decisions are accepted as final; a judge.
Unable to agree, management and labor appointed an arbiter to resolve their conflict.


(n) A private meeting or secret assembly.
The conclave of editors and reporters tried to decide whether to run the news story.


(adj) Accompanying; occupying or existing at the same time.
The popularity of the Internet, and the concomitant increase in computer sales, has been a boon to software and computer manufacturers.


(n) An intimate or exclusive group; a clique.
Several members of the hockey team became a coterie that ate together every day.


(v) To raise objections; to withhold one’s approval or agreement.
While Eleanor supported Ms. Villatoro for the director’s position, Sebastian demurred, arguing that she lacked experience.


(v) To lead or persuade by arousing desire or hope; allure.
The beautiful holiday window display was meant to entice customers into the department store.

enticing (adj)
The enticing aroma of Dad’s famous pecan pie drew me to the kitchen.


(v) To parade or display conspicuously or boldly.
Bruno flaunted his new knowledge of French by sprinkling his conversations with French phrases.


(adj) Polite, elegant, stylish; sometimes overly so.
Tomas’s genteel manner was especially noticeable when contrasted with the behavior of his raucous friends.


(adj) 1. Evoking a sharp mental picture; vivid.
Viviana described the forest in such graphic detail that I could almost feel the leaves crunch under my feet.

2. Concerning the pictorial arts, such as drawing, painting, etc.
My art teacher says that watercolor is the most challenging medium in the graphic arts.


(adj) 1. Expressing hostility or unfriendly intent.
Bella’s inimical stare suggested that a conflict might be brewing.

2. Having adverse or harmful effects.
It has been proven beyond any doubt that excessive use of alcohol is inimical to one’s health.


(adj) Beyond what is ordinary or reasonable in amount or scope; excessive.
It took me all summer to read the novel because of its inordinate length.


(adj) Provoking or describing laughter because of absurdity; ridiculous.
Dmitri could not keep a straight face when he put on the ludicrous feather costume for the school play.


(n) Government by a small, elite group.
Haiti was an oligarchy in which a few wealthy families controlled the country’s military, political, and economic affairs.


(adj) Worthy of respect; formidable.
I was relieved when I learned that the redoubtable lawyer, admired by all, was on my side.


(adj) Highly distasteful; offensive; repulsive.
The candidate’s divisive rhetoric was repugnant to voters of all races, and he finished last in the election.


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