11 • Lesson 18 Word List


(adj) Deprived of or lacking something that is wanted or needed.
The floodwaters left residents of Great Rapids bereft of home and possessions.


(n) A standard or rule by which something is judged or criticized.

criteria (n, pl)
The criteria on which a diamond is rated are clarity, carat, color, and cut.


(v) To laugh at in scorn or contempt; to ridicule.
Laughing sarcastically, the coach derided the players for their lackluster performance in the game’s first quarter.

derision (n)
Ira’s hackneyed speech earned the derision of his scornful classmates.


(n) A boldness that is offensive because of its lack of tact; audacity.
Mrs. Bell had the effrontery to announce that she was appalled by the amount of trash we generated each week.


(v) To advocate or embrace, especially a cause or idea.
In his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk, W. E. B. DuBois espoused self-determination and independence for African Americans.

espousal (n)
Ang’s espousal of alien-abduction theories estranged her from her friends.


(n) The practice of pretending to believe or value things or ideas that one does not; falseness.
The book attacked the hypocrisy of companies who promoted their products abroad after they had been banned as harmful to human health in the United States.

hypocrite (n) A person who pretends to be what he or she is not or to have principles he or she does not possess.
A hypocrite will pretend generosity while practicing parsimony.

hypocritical (adj)
Daria supposed it would be rather hypocritical of her to skip class after having chastised her brother for that very thing.


(adj) About to occur; imminent.
The impending storm put our weekend travel plans in limbo.


(adj) Filled with wrath; enraged.
D’Sean was so incensed upon discovering Omar’s mistake that he berated him for a full five minutes.


(adj) Relating to the matter at hand; relevant.
The facts you present, while interesting, are not pertinent to our discussion.


(v) To proclaim or make known.
The department has promulgated to all employees new guidelines to prevent harassment in the workplace.


(v) To forbid as harmful; to prohibit.
Obstetricians proscribe the drinking of alcoholic beverages by pregnant women.


(v) To correct or compensate for a wrong.
The mayor lost the election for failing to redress grievances concerning city schools.

(n) Something that makes up for a wrong.
Japanese Americans who had been confined to camps during World War II were given monetary compensation as redress for this wrong.


(n) A form of rule or government.
The military regime replied with an unequivocal “no” when its opponents proposed free elections.


(n) Something given in repayment, especially punishment; recompense.
The lawyer sought retribution for those involved in the accident.


(v) To verify or confirm by presenting evidence.
A deed substantiates ownership of a property.

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