11 • Lesson 3 Word List


(v) To waste away or fail to develop.
Paralysis of a person’s limbs causes the muscles to atrophy.


(n) The power to bring about the desired result; effectiveness.
The efficacy of aspirin as a pain reliever has been proven beyond a doubt.

efficacious (adj)
Mediation has proven an efficacious way of settling disputes.


(n) Salary or fees for work done; compensation.
The emoluments the poet received for her readings provided a modicum of income.


(n) 1. A religious painting, especially one revered by the Eastern Christian churches.
The exhibition of early Russian art included an icon of Saint Sergius of Radonezh, painted in the fifteenth century.

2. A symbol or image whose form suggests its meaning.
On a computer screen, a small image of a sheet of paper folded at the corner is the icon that represents a document.

3. One who is idolized.
The Beatles became icons of pop music in the 1960s.


(adj) Beginning to exist or appear; in the first stage.
At the incipient stage of my cold, Ciara insisted that I use some of her zinc lozenges to prevent it from developing further.


(v) To impress upon or teach by frequent repetition.
My father inculcated in me the value of comporting myself with modesty at all times.


(adj) Too valuable or great to be measured.
The value of a friend you can really rely on is inestimable.


(adj) Lacking brightness or vitality; without spirit or enthusiasm.
The oboe soloist was not pleased with her lackluster performance and promised to practice more so she could do better next time.


(n) A strict disciplinarian.
Summer camp was not at all relaxing because the director was a martinet who did not believe in free time.


(adj) 1. Extremely large in bulk, quantity, or degree.
The runners ate prodigious amounts of pasta at dinner the night before the marathon.

2. Causing amazement or wonder.
At the carnival, we took in everything, including a performance by Mr. Muscles, whose prodigious feats of strength were, indeed, amazing.


(n) A regulated program, especially one designed to improve or maintain health.
After injuring his knee, Sayid faithfully followed the regimen of daily exercises recommended by his physical therapist.


(adj) 1. Of or related to a star.
The Big Dipper, being made of stars, is known as a stellar configuration.

2. Outstanding or brilliant.
The audience raved over the conductor’s stellar performance.


(n) One seemingly indifferent to pleasure or pain.
He comported himself like a stoic throughout his long and painful ordeal.

To observers, Kiew’s stoic demeanor revealed little of either her happiness or her sorrow.


(adj) 1. Full of life or vigor.
The raconteur’s vibrant personality helped make the performance a lively one.

2. Bright or vivid.
Reds and oranges are more vibrant than grays or browns.

3. Quivering or vibrating.
The vibrant strings of the guitar transmit sound through the body of the instrument.


(adj) Very enthusiastic; fervent; passionate on behalf of someone or something.
The candidate’s zealous supporters convened in the hotel ballroom to pledge their wholehearted support.


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