11 • Lesson 7 Word List


(n) 1. A large group of islands.
Key West is the southernmost island of the Florida archipelago referred to as “the Keys.”

2. A body of water containing a large number of islands.
The island of Rhodes is located in the Aegean archipelago.


(v) 1. To rush headlong, often with a swerving or lurching motion.
The roller coaster careened around the bends.

2. To cause to lean or tip to one side (as a ship).
It’s thrilling to sail when strong winds careen the boat.


(adj) Showing an offhand or carefree disregard; arrogant.
Alexei’s cavalier attitude toward studying may one day catch up with him.


(adj) Sharing a boundary; being very close or in contact; adjacent.
Properties contiguous to the town landfill cost considerably less than those located downtown.


(v) To connect related things; to bring things into proper relation with one another.
The study correlated the exposure to certain plastics with an increase in cancer cases.

correlation (n)
The possible correlation between piano playing and mathematical achievement merits further study.


(n) 1. The history of a word.
The etymology of many English words reveals the language’s close ties to ancient Latin.

2. The science that studies such histories.
The etymology of place names often provides interesting cultural and historical information.


(adj) Wildly excited; frantic.
The frenetic buying and selling on the floor of the stock market yesterday left investors wary about today’s transactions.


(adj) Relating to motion.
A moving body possesses kinetic energy proportional to its speed and mass.


(v) To foretell; to warn or indicate in advance.
Dark clouds presage rain.


(v) 1. To crush or grind into dust or powder.
The limestone was pulverized and then used to make cement.

2. To demolish.
The hurricane pulverized the beachside cabins until they were unrecognizable


(adj) Difficult to understand; abstruse.
The law of primogeniture during the Plantagenet era is one of the recondite subjects on which Ms. González is an expert


(v) 1. To repel; to drive back.
The general was disconcerted when his attack on the enemy position was repulsed.

2. To reject in a cool or distant manner.
Elaina repulsed the invitation with a curt refusal.

3. To disgust.
The unsavory incident repulsed those who witnessed it.


(adj) 1. Caused by or having to do with earthquakes.
Seismic changes in the earth’s crust caused the break in the freeway.

2. Having powerful and widespread effects.
The new leadership promises political changes of seismic proportions.


(v) 1. To form or move in waves.
The sea undulated beneath the boat, lifting it up and down.

2. To have a wavelike appearance or motion.
The wheat field undulated in the wind.

undulation (n)
Pilar began to feel ill from driving on the steep undulations of the country road.


(n) 1. A radical or violent change.
The Civil Rights movement sparked a time of upheaval across the country.

2. A forceful lifting or warping from beneath.
Small upheavals in our lawn revealed the subterranean paths of moles.

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