12 • Lesson 12 Word List


(v) To make aware of; to inform.
Malia apprised her employer of her intention of leaving at the end of the year.


(adj) Marked by a joyful appearance; blissful.
The beatific expression of a child at play is captured in this series of photographs.


(adj) Forceful, to the point, and convincing.
The reporter’s cogent argument convinced the editor to give her the assignment.


(n) A conversation or dialogue, especially on a serious subject.
When our colloquy became contentious, we decided it was time we took a break.


(v) To corrupt morally; to debase.
Absolute power so depraved the Roman emperor Caligula that he committed unimaginable cruelties.

depravity (n)


(adj) Unconnected to other parts; separate and distinct.
Sand is composed of tiny, discrete particles of rock.


(v) 1. To remove clear evidence of; to rub out or erase.
The weather over time had partially effaced the mural.

2. To make (oneself) inconspicuous.
One actor expected the other actors to efface themselves so that he could be the star of the show.


(v) To make clear by explanation; to clarify.
The professor elucidated Bohr’s theory so well that the structure of the atom became quite clear to the class.


(n) An intense fire; hell or a place of destruction and great suffering that suggests hell.
Within minutes of the fire starting, the factory was a raging inferno.

infernal (adj)


(adj) Tearful; tending to induce tears; melancholic.
I could read only the first chapter of the novel because of its lachrymose tone.


(adj) 1. Marked by gloomy or unwholesome thoughts.
My grandmother’s daily reading of the obituary page indicated not morbid curiosity, but concern for her neighbors.

2. Affected by or caused by disease.
Removing the morbid tissue from his liver cured the patient.


(adj) Aware of everything that is going on; all-knowing.
Professor Wu doesn’t pretend to be omniscient, but she knows a great deal about almost every subject.

omniscience (n)


(adj) Serving to make less painful or severe.
The hospice program delivers palliative services to those who are gravely ill.

palliative (n)


(adj) Beyond what is normal or natural; incapable of being explained or understood.
Either he possesses preternatural power that enables him to bend spoons without touching them, or he is a charlatan.


(adj) 1. Promoting a beneficial effect.
The idea of losing telephone privileges had a salutary effect on Jamila’s motivation to do her homework.

2. Healthful.
Wearing sunblock will have a salutary effect on your skin.

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