12 • Lesson 18 Word List

abortive

(adj) Failing in purpose; unsuccessful.
After several abortive attempts to lower the undercarriage, the pilot was forced to make a crash landing.

arrogate

(v) To lay claim to without possessing the right to do so.
The writer Kurt Vonnegut warns of a government arrogating to itself rights that belong to the people.

cadaver

(n) A dead animal or human body.
Medical students dissect cadavers as part of their training.

cadaverous (adj)

cerebral

(adj) 1. Relating to the brain or intellect.
A person is declared brain-dead when cerebral activity ceases.

2. Appealing to the intellect, as opposed to the emotions.
When savants of science meet for a discussion, the colloquy is predictably cerebral.

compete
coma

(n) A state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease or injury.
The victim was in a coma for seven days after being struck on the head.

comatose (adj)

consanguinity*

(n) A relationship derived from a common ancestor.
A genealogy shows the degrees of consanguinity within a family.

consanguineous (adj)

ghoul

(n) A gruesome and revolting creature.
The horror movie about ghouls coming out of graveyards at midnight was risible rather than terrifying.

ghoulish (adj) Showing a morbid interest in gruesome things.

infringe

(v) 1. To violate.
Publishing material without the author’s consent infringes international copyright law.

2. (Used with on or upon.) To exceed the limits of; to encroach upon.
By taking an extra twenty minutes to finish their dinner, the family infringed upon our reservation time.

lassitude

(n) A feeling of weariness; listlessness.
Lassitude usually accompanies a fever and is a sign that a person’s body needs rest.

compete
nadir

(n) The lowest point.
Toy sales reach their nadir in January and do not usually pick up again until after Thanksgiving.

nuptials

(n) A wedding ceremony.
The couple is planning an August wedding and will hold the nuptials on the beach.

nuptial (adj) Of or relating to a wedding.

compete
onus

(n) Something that must be borne; a burden.
In a criminal case, the onus of proof rests with the prosecution.

protocol*

(n) 1. A correct code of conduct; etiquette.
Royal protocol requires that no one leaves before Her Majesty is ready to depart.

2. A standard procedure for a medical treatment or a scientific experiment.
The protocol for the pharmaceutical research required a double-blind test.

refractory

(adj) 1. Failing to yield to treatment.
The refractory nature of the disease indicates that the virus is resistant to antibiotics.

2. Hard to manage; unruly.
The leaders became alarmed when the concerned group turned into a refractory crowd.

sanguine*

(adj) 1. Of a healthy red color.
Her sanguine complexion was the result of a brisk jog around the park.

2. Cheerful and optimistic.
Her sanguine personality was a welcome addition to the gloomy atmosphere at the meeting.

compete

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