12 • Lesson 18 Word List


(adj) Failing in purpose; unsuccessful.
After several abortive attempts to lower the undercarriage, the pilot was forced to make a crash landing.


(v) To lay claim to without possessing the right to do so.
The writer Kurt Vonnegut warns of a government arrogating to itself rights that belong to the people.


(n) A dead animal or human body.
Medical students dissect cadavers as part of their training.

cadaverous (adj)


(adj) 1. Relating to the brain or intellect.
A person is declared brain-dead when cerebral activity ceases.

2. Appealing to the intellect, as opposed to the emotions.
When savants of science meet for a discussion, the colloquy is predictably cerebral.


(n) A state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease or injury.
The victim was in a coma for seven days after being struck on the head.

comatose (adj)


(n) A relationship derived from a common ancestor.
A genealogy shows the degrees of consanguinity within a family.

consanguineous (adj)


(n) A gruesome and revolting creature.
The horror movie about ghouls coming out of graveyards at midnight was risible rather than terrifying.

ghoulish (adj) Showing a morbid interest in gruesome things.


(v) 1. To violate.
Publishing material without the author’s consent infringes international copyright law.

2. (Used with on or upon.) To exceed the limits of; to encroach upon.
By taking an extra twenty minutes to finish their dinner, the family infringed upon our reservation time.


(n) A feeling of weariness; listlessness.
Lassitude usually accompanies a fever and is a sign that a person’s body needs rest.


(n) The lowest point.
Toy sales reach their nadir in January and do not usually pick up again until after Thanksgiving.


(n) A wedding ceremony.
The couple is planning an August wedding and will hold the nuptials on the beach.

nuptial (adj) Of or relating to a wedding.


(n) Something that must be borne; a burden.
In a criminal case, the onus of proof rests with the prosecution.


(n) 1. A correct code of conduct; etiquette.
Royal protocol requires that no one leaves before Her Majesty is ready to depart.

2. A standard procedure for a medical treatment or a scientific experiment.
The protocol for the pharmaceutical research required a double-blind test.


(adj) 1. Failing to yield to treatment.
The refractory nature of the disease indicates that the virus is resistant to antibiotics.

2. Hard to manage; unruly.
The leaders became alarmed when the concerned group turned into a refractory crowd.


(adj) 1. Of a healthy red color.
Her sanguine complexion was the result of a brisk jog around the park.

2. Cheerful and optimistic.
Her sanguine personality was a welcome addition to the gloomy atmosphere at the meeting.


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