12 • Lesson 9 Word List


(adj) Highly relevant; apt.
“Skyscraper” is an apposite name for Manhattan’s many tall buildings.


(n) A false accusation meant to hurt someone’s reputation; slander.
In those days, anyone committing calumny was likely to be challenged to a duel by the injured party.

calumnious (adj)


(n) 1. An area or territory over which control is exercised.
The domain of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan extended over much of Asia during the thirteenth century.

2. A field of activity, knowledge, or concern.
In the domain of the arts, the Maya civilization (c. 600–c.1500) of Central America was extraordinarily advanced.


(adj) Of, on, or near the back of a creature.
The dorsal shell of a turtle is called the carapace.


(v) To lessen the vigor or strength of; to enfeeble.
Sitting too long in the hot whirlpool at her health club enervated my cousin.


(n) One with discriminating taste, especially but not exclusively relating to food and drink.
Epicures gathered at Le Crillon in Paris to name the chef of the year.


(v) To clear from alleged guilt or fault.
Through her diligence and knowledge of the law, the young attorney exculpated the defendant.

exculpatory (adj)


(adj) Differing in kind or parts; varied.
The college students in this older neighborhood help make the community more heterogeneous.


(adj) Extremely small in size or quantity.
Quarks are infinitesimal subatomic particles that make up protons and neutrons.


(adj) Of, at, from, or toward the side.
The tree assumed a more upright form once some of the lateral branches were removed.


(adj) Of or relating to the earliest ages; primitive.
The dinosaur whose bones we uncovered may have died in a primeval swamp a hundred million years ago.


(n) The best or most typical example.
Ballet dancer Vaslov Nijinsky (1890–1950) was said to be the quintessence of grace and beauty.

quintessential (adj)


(adj) Having a saw-toothed or notched edge.
The linden tree has serrated leaves.


(adj) Being, in fact, the thing named or described; literally so. Often used to emphasize the aptness of a metaphor.
The sound system failed, making the concert a veritable disaster.


(adj) Producing living young instead of eggs, in the manner of most mammals and some reptiles and fishes.
The duck-billed platypus of Australia and Tasmania is not viviparous, even though it is a mammal.

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