3 • Lesson 11 Word List


(n) A plan or drawing that shows how something works or how different parts fit together.
Ahmad quickly made a diagram of the stockroom showing us where he wanted each box placed.


(v) To keep from carrying out a plan or reaching a goal.
The foul weather today frustrated our plan to visit the zoo.

frustrating (adj) Causing one to be upset or discouraged.
Seeing his favorite ball on the dresser just out of reach was very frustrating to Yves.


(n) A person who has finished a course of study.
The graduates proudly walked up on stage to receive their diplomas.

(v) To finish a course of study and receive a diploma.
After Sarah graduated from high school, she worked for a year to save money for college.


(n) A playful trick or joke.
As a prank, Melanie put a rubber snake in Mr. Donne’s desk drawer.


(adj) 1. First in importance.
After the fire, Jenn’s primary need was a place to stay.

2. First in order.
After primary school, we go on to middle school.


(v) To take a chance on being hurt or losing something.
You risk being thrown from the car in an accident if you do not wear a seat belt.

(n) The chance of getting hurt or suffering loss or failure.
We put on sunscreen to lower the risk of skin cancer.

risky (adj) Likely to cause harm or damage; dangerous.
Mike did not think it was risky to ride a bike without a helmet until he fell off and bumped his head.


(v) To pay special attention to.
The dentist stressed the importance of brushing our teeth daily to keep them healthy.

(n) 1. A strain or pressure put on a person or thing.
Although Renee enjoys being on the swim team, she also feels stress before each race.

2. Special force put on a word or part of a word.
When you say “cocoon,” you place the stress on the second syllable.


(v) To speak strongly for something; to argue in favor of something.
Because we had liked the play at the children’s theater so much, we urged our cousins to see it.

(n) A strong feeling of wanting to do something; a strong wish.
Anna felt an urge to dive into the cool pond.


(adj) Having nothing or no one in it; not filled; empty.
As the children explored the second floor of the old castle, they found room after room completely vacant.


(adj) Demanding strength or energy; very active.
My grandparents enjoyed their vigorous hike in the White Mountains.

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