3 • Lesson 12 Word List


(v) 1. To take into one’s home and to raise a child as part of one’s family.
The Beckwiths were happy to adopt both the brother and sister so that the children could stay together.

2. To take up and make one’s own.
Our town adopted a new recycling plan.


(v) 1. To awaken from sleep.
Tanya was aroused in the night by her dog’s barking.

2. To excite or bring about.
Our visit to Gettysburg last summer aroused my brother’s interest in the Civil War.


(v) 1. To put in a certain order.
Marta and Vincent arranged the desks and chairs in three long rows before the students arrived.

2. To plan or prepare.
Eli arranged to meet us at the train station at 1:30.


(n) 1. A small room with little or no furniture, especially one used for prisoners.
Each jail cell had only a bunk bed, a sink, and a toilet.

2. A tiny unit of living matter.
Plant cells can be seen only by using a microscope.

3. A small enclosed space grouped with others.
The cells of a honeycomb have six sides.


(n) A disease caused by germs.
You should clean that cut carefully to prevent infection.


(n) 1. The power to cause change or bring about certain results.
The influence of Martin Luther King Jr.’s ideas was clear in the marchers’ peaceful actions.

2. Someone or something that can cause change.
Listening to tapes of the famous young violin player had a great influence on Lydia’s playing.

(v) To cause change or bring about certain results.
The position of the moon in relation to Earth influences tides around the world.


(v) To do harm to; to hurt or damage.
Acid rain, which is a result of burning coal, injures plants, soil, and water.

injury (n) Harm or damage.
Jonathan’s fall on the ice is what caused his wrist injury.


(n) 1. The way in which shapes, objects, or colors are placed in relation to each other.
The circular pattern of the garden was clear when I looked at it from the balcony.

2. A plan or diagram that is used as a guide for making things.
Caitlyn used this paper pattern to cut out the pieces for a jacket.


(n) A number of similar things laid out or happening in a certain order.
This summer, the series of evening concerts by the river includes one of my favorite guitar players.


(n) 1. Eyesight; the sense of sight.
After he was fitted with suitable glasses, Simon’s vision improved greatly.

2. Something imagined or hoped for; a dream of what might be.
The people in the town had a vision of a river clean enough to swim in, and they worked for years to make it happen.


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