4 • Lesson 11 Word List

annual*

(adj) Happening every year.
Our annual school fair is in March.

(n) 1. A plant that lives for one year.
The petunia is my favorite annual.

2. A book that comes out once a year.
I save all my NFL football annuals.

artificial

(adj) Made by human beings and not by nature.
My aunt Rosa says she can taste the difference between artificial sweeteners and real sugar.

blend

(v) 1. To come or mix together into one.
Make sure you blend the butter and sugar before you add the flour.

2. To go together.
The painter chose colors that blend well.

(n) A mixture.
My favorite ice cream is a blend of vanilla and strawberry.

compete
bore

(v) 1. To make a round hole in by drilling.
If you bore a hole in the wood first, you won’t split it when you put in the screw.

2. To tire by being dull and uninteresting.
The yawns of my listeners told me I was beginning to bore them.

(n) A dull and uninteresting person.
He tells that same joke so often that he is becoming a terrible bore.

boring (adj) Dull and uninteresting.
She sometimes stretches the facts a little, but her stories are never boring.

boredom (n) A state of being bored.
When heads begin to nod and eyes to close, you can tell boredom has set in.

considerable*

(adj) Great; large.
Although my grandmother’s house is a considerable distance from town, she walks to the post office there every day.

crude

(adj) 1. Raw; in an unrefined state.
Factories turn crude oil into gasoline.

2. Roughly made.
Andrea drew me a crude map with a crayon on a scrap of paper.

3. Ill-mannered.
My brother got in trouble for making crude remarks in front of our grandparents.

compete
evaporate

(v) 1. To change from water into steam or vapor.
The water in the kettle boiled so long that it all evaporated.

2. To disappear.
By the third day on the mountain, our hopes of being rescued began to evaporate.

foliage

(n) The leaves of trees and other plants.
The house at the end of the road was completely hidden by foliage.

compete
gash

(n) A long, deep cut.
When Liza slipped on the rocks, she had to go to the hospital to have the gash in her leg stitched up.

hue

(n) A color; especially a shade of color.
The apples in the painting stand out because of their vivid reddish-orange hue.

compete
increase

(v) To make or become larger; to add to.
I’m going to ask my mother to increase my allowance on my next birthday.

(n) The amount by which something gets larger.
A wet spring usually means an increase in the number of mosquitoes.

nourish

(v) To feed; to support or make grow.
We nourish our bodies best by eating fruits, vegetables, and grains.

nourishment (n) Anything that feeds or helps to make grow.
When I had the flu, the only nourishment I could take was clear chicken broth.

vary*

(v) To make or have a change in.
The length of a calendar month varies between twenty-eight and thirty-one days.

variation (n) A change in form, position, or condition.
There isn’t much variation between the summer and the winter temperatures where my grandfather lives.

vision

(n) 1. Eyesight.
If you are lucky enough to have 20/20 vision, you’ll be able to see well.

2. Something seen in the mind, especially of the future.
The founders of the United Nations had a vision of a world without hunger or war.

visual (adj) Of or used in seeing.
As a visual aid, the pictures were projected onto a large screen.

compete
yield

(v) 1. To give up someone or something; to surrender.
My parents finally yielded to my requests to get a parakeet.

2. To produce.
Twenty gallons of milk will yield about one pound of butter.

(n) The amount produced.
The farmer told us that you can expect a yield of about fifty pounds of fruit from each apple tree.

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