4 • Lesson 14 Word List


(v) 1. To be able to pay for.
Can you afford a new pair of running shoes?

2. To be able to do.
When you’re on the soccer team, you can’t afford to miss a night’s sleep.

3. To give; to provide.
Music affords me so much happiness.


(v) 1. To talk with too much pride in oneself or in what one owns or has done; to brag.
Mei boasted about all the games she had won.

2. To have and to take a proper pride in having.
Our town boasts some of the best schools in the state.

(n) An act of boasting.
“It was just a boast,” Julio said. “I can’t really run five miles.”


(n) Three or more notes of music played together.
Becca played a few chords on the guitar.


(adj) Unusually good.
The fresh broccoli was of exceptional quality.


(adj) Lucky.
You are fortunate to have such kind friends.


(n) 1. An edge made of short lengths of material such as thread, used to decorate clothes, curtains, etc.
My skirt had, fringe down the side.

2. An outside edge.
At the concert, I stood at the fringe of the crowd.


(adj) 1. Plain and simple.
Abraham Lincoln was raised in a humble log cabin.

2. Not proud; modest.
In her humble speech of thanks, the new mayor said she would need all the help she could get.

(v) To bring down to defeat.
Our soccer team humbled Newton High with a score of seven goals to one.


(n) A field of grass or wildflowers.
In the middle of the meadow stood a cow and its calf.


(adj) Filled with sorrow; very sad.
The movie was so sad it left me in a melancholy mood.

(n) A state of sadness.
His melancholy began to affect my mood, and I grew more and more dejected.


(adj) Not willing to give in; stubborn.
You can’t persuade him to do anything—he’s too obstinate.


(v) 1. To ask for something that is felt to be very important; to beg.
The children pleaded with their parents to let them stay up late.

2. To respond to a charge by a court of law.
The man said he wished to plead not guilty.


(v) 1. To throw oneself into.
We plunged into the pool and swam a few laps.

2. To push or force quickly.
I plunged the spade into the earth.

3. To drop sharply.
The price of lemonade plunged when the weather turned cold.

(n) A sudden dive or fall.
My spirits took a plunge when I saw the first page of the test.


(v) To become less strict.
My parents finally relented and said I could go to the concert.


(v) 1. To give to someone to look over or decide about.
Each student is asked to submit a picture for the yearbook.

2. To give in to someone or something.
My sister was always telling me what to do, but I refused to submit to her.


(v) To walk slowly and heavily, as though with great effort.
We had to trudge through deep snow to reach the door.


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