4 • Lesson 15 Word List


(adj) 1. Clear.
It’s apparent that no one’s home.

2. Seeming or appearing to be.
The apparent cause of the baby’s crying is that she is hungry.


(v) To forbid, especially by passing a law or making a rule.
The hospital bans children from visiting patients.

(n) A law or rule that forbids something.
There is a ban on wearing hats in class.


(v) 1. To focus all one’s thoughts or efforts on.
It’s hard for me to concentrate on homework when I hear the kids outside.

2. To bring or come together in one place.
Farms were concentrated along the east side of the river.

concentration (n) Giving total attention to something.
Don’t sing! It ruins my concentration.

concentrated (adj) Of increased strength or thickness.
For breakfast, mix one part concentrated orange juice to three parts water.


(v) 1. To be about; to interest.
Homelessness is a subject that should concern everyone.

2. To trouble or worry.
My parents are concerned about my brother’s health.

(n) 1. Something that involves a person or people.
Education is a big concern for most people.

2. A business organization.
After college she hopes to get a job with a banking concern.


(v) 1. To think about carefully.
Because my dog-sitting job is temporary, it’s time to consider what I should do next.

2. To take into account.
Please consider my feelings when you comment on the story I wrote.

3. To believe.
I may only be in fourth grade, but I consider myself a very good dancer.


(v) 1. To compare in order to show the differences.
Before deciding on the design for the new gym, we are going to contrast the two suggested plans.

2. To show differences when compared.
His actions contrast greatly with his words.

(n) A difference.
Our new apartment is a welcome contrast to our old one.


(adj) Easily broken or damaged.
This ancient chair is so fragile that it would break if anyone sat on it.


(n) Something that is likely to do harm or is regarded as dangerous.
Icebergs are a menace to ships in the North Atlantic.

(v) To be a danger to; to put at risk.
The approaching hurricane menaces the entire South Carolina coast.


(v) To swoop down on and seize.
The cat pounced on the mouse as soon as it ventured from its hole.


(adj) Quick; without too much time passing.
I sent a prompt reply to Ahmed’s letter.

(v) To cause to act.
Seeing ants all over the counter prompted me to spend the afternoon cleaning the kitchen.


(adj) Of a time just before the present.
The recent outbreak of the flu resulted in the temporary closing of our school.


(n) Something that stands for something else.
The dove is a symbol of peace.


(n) The claw of a bird, usually one that kills animals for food.
The hawk clutched its victim firmly in its talons.


(n) Something, such as a prize or award, given to show success in an activity.
The Heisman Trophy is a top football honor.


(adj) 1. Spread or stretched out over a large area.
The widespread wings of the golden eagle can reach eight feet from tip to tip.

2. Happening or found over a large area.
There was widespread frost last night.


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