4 • Lesson 2 Word List


(v) 1. To bring about a change in.
Do you think changing schools will affect my grades?

2. To pretend to be or to have.
Ming affected an interest in music because she wanted to go on the trip with the choir.


(v) 1. To find the answer by using arithmetic.
We need to calculate the answers to the questions on the math quiz.

2. To figure out by reasoning.
You’d better calculate the risks carefully before riding that old bicycle.


(n) The average weather conditions of an area.
Florida’s warm climate is perfect for growing oranges.


(n) 1. A row of figures or words running down a printed page; anything arranged like that.
Do all the problems in the first column on page 30.

2. A tall, usually stone support that holds up something.
Forty-six marble columns support the roof of the Parthenon in Greece.

3. A regular newspaper or magazine article usually written by the same person.
My mother writes a weekly sports column for the News-Tribune.


(v) To rot.
Leaves left on the ground will decay over the winter.

(n) A breaking down or rotting.
Dentists say tooth decay can be prevented by regular brushing and flossing.


(v) 1. To be more than.
The final score of Monday’s game exceeded our best hopes.

2. To go beyond what is allowed.
The officer who stopped me told me never to exceed the speed limit again.

excess (n) More than enough; an extra amount.
Use what you need, and save the excess.

excessive (adj) Too much or too great.
Last winter my parents paid an excessive amount for heating oil.


(v) To order not to do something.
School rules forbid running in the hallways.

forbidden (adj) Not allowed.
Eating in class is forbidden.


(n) A group of trees growing together.
The children walked hand in hand through the grove of lemon trees.


(n) 1. An arm, leg, or wing.
Bats use their webbed front and back limbs to fly.

2. A large tree branch.
The owl was perched on the top limb of the tree.


(adj) Very large; huge.
The mammoth National Stadium in Singapore holds over fifty thousand people.


(v) To become fully grown or developed.
Rabbits mature in about six months and are then able to leave their parents.

(adj) Fully grown or developed; adult.
My brother looks very mature for only eleven.


(v) To allow.
My parents do not permit me to stay out later than 7:00 p.m.

(n) A written notice that allows a person to do something.
You need a permit to go fishing in that lake.


(v) 1. To refuse to give in to; to withstand.
Some kinds of corn resist disease better than others.

2. To work or fight against.
It was hard to resist the idea of staying in bed to sleep a little longer.


(v) To burn slightly.
If you press a shirt with an iron that is too hot, you might scorch the cloth.

scorching (adj) Very hot.
On such a scorching day, the only thing I wanted after school was a swim in the ocean.


(v) To stand above or higher than what is around it.
The Statue of Liberty towers above New York Harbor.

towering (adj) Very high; tall.
Looking up at the towering skyscrapers gave me a stiff neck.

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