4 • Lesson 6 Word List


(v) To show approval, especially by clapping hands.
The audience applauded until the actors came back on stage to take another bow.

applause (n) The showing of approval or enjoyment by cheering or clapping.
The theater lights came on after the applause had died down.


(adj) Skilled at tricking others.
Templeton, the crafty and mean rat in Charlotte’s Web, adds humor to the book.


(v) To make known.
The principal told us we must disclose the names of those who broke the window.


(adj) Dull and without color; not cheerful or colorful.
A brown sparrow is a drab little bird compared to a bright red cardinal.


(adj) Having nothing left out; whole; complete.
I recited the entire Robert Frost poem from memory.


(v) To speak suddenly and with strong feeling.
“Today was the worst day of my life!” she exclaimed.

exclamation (n) A sharp cry of strong feeling.
Grandpa’s exclamation of pain sent me rushing to his side.


(adj) Finely done or made; very beautiful.
The exquisite wood carvings on the museum door came from the island of Bali.


(v) To plan; to have in mind.
I intend to give a piano recital on Monday.

intention (n) An aim, plan, or purpose.
It was Thea’s intention to work in a bookstore, but she decided to go to summer camp instead.


(v) To speak or cry out in scorn; to mock.
My brother told me to ignore the older boys if they jeered when I sang.

(n) Something said that is meant to hurt or insult.
A football coach soon learns to ignore the jeers of the crowd.


(v) To look closely; to stare, especially at something that is hard to see or to understand.
Ahmed peered at the sign, trying to read what it said.


(n) 1. Moving toward a goal.
The stormy sea slowed the small boat’s progress.

2. An improvement.
I am finally making some progress learning the new app.

(v) 1. To move forward.
Work on the new bridge progressed at a faster pace when the weather improved.

2. To advance to a higher stage; to improve.
Manuel progressed so fast on the tuba that he got into the school band.


(v) To make pure by removing all unwanted matter.
We take oil from deep inside the earth and refine it into gasoline.

refined (adj) 1. In a pure state.
Refined flour has a lot of the wheat germ removed.

2. Having good manners and good taste.
He was a noisy and rude boy, but as a young man he is gentle and refined.


(n) A mean or wicked person.
I am glad the police caught the scoundrel who stole my wallet.


(adj) Not comfortable; worried or nervous.
I felt uneasy walking down the dark street until I observed my dad on the corner.


(adj) 1. Having too high an opinion of one’s looks or achievements.
Charlie is so vain he has a full-length mirror in every room.

2. Without success.
The firefighters made a vain attempt to keep the fire from spreading.

in vain (adv) Without success or result; useless.
All my hand-waving was in vain—the teacher never called on me.


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