4 • Lesson 9 Word List


(n) Something that is helpful or useful.
It is an advantage to be able to speak more than one language when looking for a job.

take advantage of (v) To make use of; to benefit oneself by treating others unfairly.
Martina took advantage of her position as camp leader by giving all the best jobs to her friends.


(v) To surprise or amaze.
It astonished me to discover that my new friend and I were born on the same day in the same town.

astonishment (n) Great surprise or amazement.
The children watched in astonishment as the magician pulled a rabbit out of a hat.


(v) 1. To show or prove to be true.
Before giving me a library card, the librarian asked me to confirm my address.

2. To approve or give one’s agreement to.
The members of the Senate vote to confirm Supreme Court judges.


(adj) 1. Very far away in time.
Space travel in the very distant future may involve journeys to the stars.

2. Very far away; not near or close by.
Marco Polo’s travels took him to many distant lands.

distance (n) The length of the space between two places.
The distance between Deneen’s home and her school was exactly one mile.


(n) A person who sets up something that lasts.
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson are two of the founders of the United States.

(v) To sink below the surface of the water.
The ship struck a rock and foundered before a rescue team could reach it.


(n) A small village.
One street ran through the hamlet, which had one school, a small store, and about fifty houses.


(n) 1. A large number.
Graceland is visited by hosts of people from all over the world who come to see the house where Elvis Presley lived.

2. One who greets and entertains guests and takes care of their needs at a party or restaurant.
The guests said goodbye to their host and thanked him for a great dinner.


(n) A feeling of doubt, uncertainty, or concern about what may happen in the future.
If Ellen had any misgivings about joining the group, she gave no sign of it.


(v) To make or become very dry.
The sun parched the fields and made the grass turn brown.

parched (adj) Lacking water; thirsty.
We didn’t take enough water with us, and we were parched before we came to the end of our walk.


(n) Something that is waited for, expected, or hoped for.
All the restaurants were full, and there seemed little prospect of our finding a place to eat.

(v) To look in the ground for valuable metals like gold and silver.
The four people camped alongside the river told us they were prospecting for gold.

prospector (n) A person who explores an area to look for valuable metals.
The prospector let out a whoop of joy when she saw some shiny yellow objects lying on the riverbank.


(adj) In short supply; not plentiful.
When gasoline is scarce, the price goes up.

scarcity (n) A shortage.
Due to the scarcity of candles in the store when the hurricane struck, customers were allowed only two each.


(adj) Clever; good at understanding what is needed and acting on it.
A shrewd teacher knows students need recess so they can take a break from schoolwork.


(adj) Being the only one of its kind; belonging to only one person or group.
After her husband died, Mrs. Mazoor became the sole owner of the toy store.

(n) 1. The bottom surface of the foot or of a shoe or boot.
Shoes with leather soles usually cost more than those made of plastic.

2. A flat fish that is caught and eaten for food.
Grilled sole is a popular item on the seafood restaurant’s menu.


(n) Great pain or suffering.
Our dog was a big torment to our cat, so we kept them apart.

(v) To cause pain or suffering.
The memory of insulting her new friend tormented Marguerite until she could apologize.


(adj) Being like others of its kind.
A typical apartment in this area has two bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, and one bathroom.

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