5 • Lesson 12 Word List


(v) To get back health and strength after an illness.
After the operation on my knee, I will convalesce at home.


(v) 1. To set aside for a certain purpose.
My parents dedicate part of their income to saving for my college education.

2. To devote to a serious purpose.
Madame Curie dedicated her life to science.

3. To name, address, or set aside as an honor.
The authors dedicated the book to their two children.


(v) 1. To give orders; to command.
The law dictates that children attend school until they are sixteen.

2. To say aloud while another writes down the words.
I dictated a letter to my little brother, and he wrote down every word I said.

dictator (n) A person who has complete control over a country; a person who is obeyed without question.
Hitler ruled Germany as a dictator from 1933 to 1945.


(v) To make angry; to annoy.
My brother exasperates my parents because he uses his phone so much.

exasperating (adj) Very annoying.
Waiting in long lines to enter the stadium, before the game, can be quite exasperating.


(adj) Deserving of attention; outstanding.
Michelle Obama was one of the most notable first ladies to ever occupy the White House.


(adj) 1. Coming later than expected or needed.
The bus from Boston is overdue.

2. Unpaid when owed.
My aunt never allows her bills to become overdue.


(v) To end the rule of; to defeat, often by using force.
If we overthrow the king, who will take his place?

overthrew (past tense)
The Polish people finally overthrew the Communist government that had been in power for more than forty years.

(n) The action of overthrowing.
Countries sometimes attempt an overthrow of their ruler.


(v) 1. To pierce.
Luckily, the piece of glass Irma stepped on did not penetrate her foot.

2. To pass into or through.
Very little light penetrated the dense forest.


(n) A drawing, painting, or photograph of a person, especially the face.
The famous portrait known as the Mona Lisa is in the Louvre, in Paris.


(n) A person who refuses to obey orders or the law.
If the rebels continue to gain popular support, they will be a serious threat to the government.

(v) To refuse to accept control by others.
The small children rebelled when their parents told them to go to bed.

rebellious (adj) Fighting against another’s control; disobedient.
Grounding is a punishment parents often use for rebellious children.

rebellion (n) Open opposition to another’s control.
The idea of year-round school made some students think of rebellion.


(v) To keep within certain limits.
We restrict this pathway to people riding bicycles.

restriction (n) A limit.
Our school has some restrictions about what students may wear.


(adv) Not often; rarely.
Because the sun’s rays are so strong, we seldom spend the whole day at the beach.


(v) To make more active.
The aroma of black bean soup from the kitchen stimulated my appetite for lunch.


(n) A violent windstorm usually with snow, rain, or hail.
A tempest at sea is a sailor’s greatest fear.

tempestuous (adj) Stormy, wild.
After a tempestuous argument, the two friends agreed to disagree and ended the discussion.


(n) The care and training a child gets while growing up.
My parents work very hard to give my brothers and me a wonderful upbringing.

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