5 • Lesson 5 Word List


(n) 1. A great mass of ice, earth, or snow mixed with rocks sliding down a mountain.
The mountain climbers had a narrow escape when the avalanche swept over them.

2. A great amount of something.
The company had an avalanche of orders because of their online ad for the new game.


(n) A heavy snowstorm with strong winds.
The Chicago airport had to close for two days because of the blizzard.


(v) 1. To invite others to take part in a contest.
I challenged my friend to a game of chess.

2. To cause a person to use a lot of skill or effort.
This trail challenges even the best hikers.

3. To question or to argue against, especially when something is unfair or unjust.
Very few scientists challenge the idea that a large meteorite killed off the last of the dinosaurs sixty-five million years ago.

(n) 1. An interesting task or problem; something that takes skill or effort.
Living out of our backpacks for a week on the mountain was a real challenge.

2. A call to take part in a contest.
I accepted the challenge to run in the marathon.


(v) 1. To get the better of.
Swimming lessons at the YMCA helped me conquer my fear of the water.

2. To defeat.
Our team conquered the visiting team, even though our two star players were benched.

conquest (n) The act of defeating.
The movie was about the conquest of Earth by creatures from another planet.


(n) A deep, narrow opening in rock caused by a split or crack.
The crevice had filled with soil in which a cluster of small red flowers was growing.


(adj) Unwisely bold or daring.
It would be foolhardy to go swimming during a gale.


(v) To tempt or attract with the promise of something good.
In the early nineteenth century, the hope of owning land of their own lured many people to travel west to Ohio and Indiana.

(n) 1. Something that attracts.
The lure of fresh air led us to the park for a walk.

2. Artificial bait used for fishing.
A large striped bass took the lure, and I hooked it.


(n) A temporary and usually less strong replacement.
We used the camper as a makeshift while our house was being built.

(adj) Used as a temporary replacement.
We use the cooler as a makeshift table when we have a picnic.


(n) One who looks at things in the most positive way; a cheerful, hopeful person.
Jade and Jean are optimists and so, of course, they believed the bus would not leave without us.

optimistic (adj) Cheerful; hopeful.
In spite of the injuries to our best players, I am optimistic about our chances of winning the big game.

optimism (n) A feeling of hope or cheerfulness.
The patients’ optimism helped them recover more quickly from their illnesses.


(adj) Earlier; happening before.
Although I missed the last practice, I attended the two previous ones.


(n) 1. The path that must be followed to get to a place.
Our route to Seattle takes us through Denver.

2. A fixed course or area assigned to a salesperson or delivery person.
Magali has over a hundred customers on her newspaper route.


(n) 1. The highest part; the top.
It took us three hours to climb to the summit of Mount Washington.

2. A conference or meeting of the top leaders of governments.
The summit of African heads of state will take place in Nairobi in late June.


(adj) Short and to the point.
When I said I was sure we would be rescued soon, my friend’s terse reply was, “How?”


(v) To block or defeat the plans or efforts of.
Heavy flooding thwarted the UN’s attempts to deliver food.


(adj) Running straight up and down; upright.
The black vertical lines in this painting are what one notices first.


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