6 • Lesson 10 Word List


(v) 1. To look forward to; to expect.
We anticipated having a good time at the party.

2. To be aware of and to provide for beforehand.
The teacher anticipated their questions by explaining the assignment thoroughly.


(adj) 1. Unable to pay one’s debts and freed by law from doing so.
The store owner was bankrupt after the business failed.

2. Left without any worth or value.
Kylie was bankrupt of ideas for the project.

(v) To leave without worth or value.
His extravagances bankrupted him.


(adj) Short; not long-lasting.
The guests had time for just a brief visit, so they did not linger when it was time to leave.

(v) To give a short explanation or set of instructions to.
An assistant briefed the mayor before the debate.

(n) A statement giving the main points in a case, for use in a court of law.
The attorney glanced at her brief before addressing the judge.


(adj) 1. Quick; active.
The runners kept up a brisk pace at the start of the race.

2. Stimulating; refreshing.
The brisk wind blowing off the ocean felt good.


(n) A plan for spending money during a certain period.
The extravagant dinner caused the family to overspend their weekly food budget.

(v) To plan the use of carefully.
A part-time job may affect your schoolwork unless you budget your time.


(v) To try to win against others.
Five students competed for first prize.

competition (n) 1. The act of trying to win against others.
Competition to get into a good college can be fierce.

2. A contest.
The team entered the competition even though it had little chance of winning.

competitor (n) One who competes against others.
Six competitors entered the race.


(v) To make difficult.
An extra guest may complicate the seating arrangements.

complicated (adj) Not easy or simple; having many different parts.
The instructions are so complicated that no one could figure them out.


(v) To make happen.
The new principal will effect many changes.

(n) A result.
The medicine I took for my headache had no effect.

effective (adj) 1. Bringing about the desired result.
Gargling with salt water is an effective treatment for a minor sore throat.

2. In operation; active.
A new dress code was effective the day school opened.

3. Making a strong and favorable impression.
People are likely to remember what an effective speaker says.


(v) To be wrong or to do wrong.
I erred when I accused you of lying.

error (n) A mistake.
Errors in punctuation are easily corrected.

erroneous (adj) Mistaken; wrong.
The facts are correct, but the conclusion is erroneous.


(n) Something that contributes to a result.
Paying attention and studying diligently are two factors in getting good grades.


(n) Something that is very popular for a short time, then forgotten.
Ankle bracelets were the fad one summer.


(v) 1. To complain.
The children always gripe about having to get up early.

2. To annoy or irritate.
Crowded streets gripe the traveling public.

(n) A complaint.
Too much homework and too few lunch choices were two of the students’ gripes.


(n) A special talent or skill; ability to do something easily.
My mother has a knack for making friends wherever she goes.


(n) Free time not taken up with work.
My father’s sixty-hour work week allows little time for leisure.

leisurely (adj) Slow; relaxed.
The friends strolled at a leisurely pace through the park.


(adj) The only one of its kind.
The platypus, a mammal that lays eggs, is unique among animals.


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