6 • Lesson 11 Word List


(v) To shorten by leaving out certain parts.
Main Street can be abbreviated to Main St.

abbreviation (n) The result of abbreviating.
Mr. Smith is the accepted abbreviation for Mister Smith.


(adj) Suitable or right for the purpose.
Sandals are not appropriate footwear for hiking.

(v) To set aside for a particular purpose.
Congress appropriates money for various programs.


(v) To leave out; to keep from being a part of.
The gym teacher excluded everyone who could not run a mile from the advanced gym class.


(adj) 1. Not based on reason; unrealistic.
One inventor came up with a fanciful scheme to turn water into gasoline.

2. Not real; imaginary.
For the costume party, some of the children dressed up as ghosts, goblins, and other fanciful creatures.


(adj) Certain to fail; hopeless or useless.
Before giving up, we made several futile attempts to retrieve the car keys that had fallen into the lake.


(n) A feeling of resentment.
Rosa held a grudge against her friends because of the way they treated her brother.

(v) To be unwilling to give.
Do you grudge me this food when you see how ravenous I am?

grudging (adj) Done or said with reluctance.
Everyone knew that such a grudging apology could not be sincere.


(v) To fill with emotion or great excitement.
Einstein’s discoveries inspired me to become a scientist.

inspiration (n) The power to affect the mind or the emotions; anything that has this effect.
The sight of leaves falling was the inspiration for this poem.


(n) 1. The greater number or part; more than half.
The majority of teachers at this school live in town.

2. The amount by which one number of votes is greater than another.
The vote was 97 to 91, a majority of six.


(v) To refuse to give up despite difficulties.
The workers persevered through the blizzard until the house for the needy family was complete.

perseverance (n) Continued efforts in spite of difficulties.
With perseverance, you can overcome extravagance and stick to a budget.


(v) 1. To have or to own.
The children possess three pairs of shoes.

2. To get power or control over.
Fear possessed them as they entered the haunted house.

possession (n) 1. The act of owning or holding.
The family recipe book is in my grandmother’s possession.

2. The thing that is held or owned.
The immigrants arrived with all their possessions in a few suitcases.


(n) An opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts.
Her prejudice against tomatoes keeps her from trying many delicious dishes.

(v) To cause to have such a feeling.
A student’s casual attire should not prejudice a store owner against him or her.

prejudiced (adj) Having such a feeling.
One cannot expect a fair verdict from a prejudiced judge.


(adj) Determined not to give in; unyielding.
The shelter was resolute about finding good homes for the kittens.


(v) To look down on with scorn; to mock or insult by words or manner.
“That was the most mediocre acting I’ve ever seen,” someone sneered.

(n) A scornful look; a mocking or insulting remark.
I didn’t let my companion’s sneers diminish my enjoyment of the local artists’ exhibition.


(adj) Without any disagreement.
The motion passed by a unanimous vote of 57 to 0.

unanimity (n) The condition of being unanimous.
The committee voted 12 to 0 in a rare display of unanimity.


(adj) 1. Badly behaved.
An unruly child in a restaurant can be very annoying to the other diners.

2. Hard to control.
This hair spray might help keep your unruly hair in place.

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