6 • Lesson 12 Word List


(v) 1. To give up by leaving in a time of danger.
The captain gave the order to abandon the ship when it began to sink.

2. To lose or give up completely.
The trapped miners refused to abandon hope of rescue.

3. To withdraw help or support from one in need.
The city had to abandon its plan for low-income housing because the budget for it was not approved.


(n) An enemy or opponent.
France and Germany were adversaries in two world wars but now enjoy friendly relations.


(v) To confuse; to prevent from understanding.
Alice was baffled by their inappropriate behavior and didn’t know how to respond.


(n) A stupid or careless mistake.
The mayor’s rude comment was a major blunder that cost him the election.

(v) 1. To make such a mistake.
The chess champion blundered when she failed to protect her knight from her opponent’s bishop.

2. To move in a clumsy or careless way.
The Sheriff of Nottingham blundered into the trap Robin Hood had set for him.


(adj) Very big; enormous.
The colossal size of the Great Wall is what impressed the tourists most.


(v) To discover something not easily noticed.
The witness did not detect anything unusual that day.


(v) To pull or carry with effort.
We haul the boat out of the water every winter.

(n) 1. The amount caught or taken at one time.
The crew was delighted with the large haul of fish today.

2. The distance traveled or to be traveled.
It’s a long haul into town.


(v) To get the better of; to defeat.
The spider overpowered the insect caught in its web.


(v) To be very happy.
Family members rejoiced when they heard that members of the Mount Everest expedition had returned safely.


(v) To mock; to ridicule.
People once scoffed at the idea of space travel.


(n) One who keeps watch or guards a point of entry.
Sentinels were posted to warn of the enemy’s approach.


(n) The surrounding of a place in order to force it to surrender.
The siege of Leningrad by the German army lasted from 1941 to 1944.


(adj) Suggesting or leading to evil or harm.
The villain’s sinister words, “I’ll be back!” sent shivers down our spines.


(n) The winner in a contest or struggle.
The victors of the semifinal competition will meet in the finals tomorrow.

victorious (adj) Successful in a contest or battle.
The victorious debate team was honored at a ceremony attended by the mayor.


(n) 1. Deep distress or misery.
The students’ woe was evident as they were led off to the principal’s office.

2. Trouble; misfortune.
The country’s woes cannot be cured overnight.

woeful (adj) 1. Full of woe; unhappy.
Those fleeing the country told a woeful tale of persecution by its rulers.

2. Very bad; wretched.
The pilot made a woeful error in judgment by trying to land in dense fog.

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