6 • Lesson 18 Word List

abroad

(adv) Away from one’s own country.
Mark Twain wrote humorous stories of his travels abroad.

compete
anguish

(n) Extreme pain of the body or mind.
I felt anguish when no one turned up for the vote to protect the forest.

(v) To suffer extreme doubts or uncertainties.
Jess anguished over whether to tell his teacher that he had seen someone cheating.

commence*

(v) To start; to begin.
The school year commences on September 9.

commend

(v) 1. To speak of with approval; to praise.
The teacher commended the students who excelled on the test.

2. To put in the care of.
A burial at sea usually ends with the words, “We commend this body to the deep.”

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controversy

(n) A public dispute that arouses strong feelings.
The plan to build a new power station in an unspoiled rural area created controversy.

controversial (adj) Causing controversy.
The school board’s controversial decision to extend the school year was approved by a majority of one.

cordial

(adj) Sincerely warm and friendly.
The guests received a cordial welcome at the party.

dissent

(v) To disagree.
Only one senator dissented when the vote was taken.

(n) The expression of a difference of opinion.
There was dissent from students over the school board’s decision to increase testing.

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earnest

(ad). Serious and important; not light and playful.
The tornado victim’s earnest appeal for help could not be ignored.

elicit

(v) To draw out or to cause.
The fiery speech elicited an angry response from the crowd.

exhilaration

(n) Excitement; a state of elation.
The baseball fans showed their exhilaration by running onto the field and carrying the players off on their shoulders.

exhilarating (adj) Exciting; stimulating.
The high point of our day at the fair was the exhilarating ride on the roller coaster.

exhilarate (v) To excite; to cause to feel lively.
The sound of a big brass band never fails to exhilarate the crowds.

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genuine

(adj) 1. Real; being what it seems to be.
This is a genuine diamond, not a fake.

2. Honest; sincere.
As a result of the successful boycott, the company made a genuine effort to stop polluting the groundwater.

hoax

(n) An act intended to fool or deceive others.
We knew the player’s injury was a hoax when he jumped to his feet and laughed at us.

(v) To fool; to play a trick on.
Alisha believed she had won first prize until she learned that her friends had hoaxed her.

manipulate*

(v) 1. To operate using the hands, especially in a skillful way.
The deft players manipulated the controls of the video game with incredible speed.

2. To control in a secret or unfair way.
Real friends don’t manipulate each other into doing things that are wrong.

recount

(v) To give a detailed account of.
The judge asked the witness to recount what happened just before the accident.

(n) A second count, as of the vote in an election.
The candidate who lost by only three votes immediately demanded a recount.

skeptic

(n) A person who is not easy to convince unless positive proof is offered.
When it comes to astrology, my cousin remains a skeptic.

skeptical (adj) Showing doubt or an unwillingness to believe.
I gave the inept dancer a skeptical look when he offered to teach me to tango.

skepticism (n) An attitude of doubt or disbelief.
The statement that the test didn’t really matter was greeted with skepticism.

compete

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