6 • Lesson 19 Word List


(n) 1. An opening made by battering.
Water poured through the breach in the dam.

2. A breaking or being broken.
Your attempts to manipulate your roommate are what caused the breach in your friendship.

(v) 1. To break through.
The eager spectators breached the barriers along the parade route.

2. To fail to keep; to break.
Not telling the truth breaches the agreement you made.


(adj) Cold and damp.
The speaker was so nervous his hands were clammy with sweat.


(v) To build; to make by fitting the parts together.
We constructed the tree house from pieces of scrap lumber.

construction (n) 1. The act of building.
The mason salvaged used bricks for the construction of the walk.

2. Something that is built.
The Great Pyramid is an extraordinary construction.


(adj) Having great detail; done with much care.
The elaborate meal took hours to prepare.

(v) To give more details.
Could you elaborate on the plan so that the student contributors can get a better understanding of it?


(adj) Having a pleasant smell.
We awoke to the fragrant aroma of freshly baked bread.

fragrance (n) A sweet or pleasant smell.
The fragrance of her perfume lingered after she had departed.


(v) 1. To equip with what is needed; to supply.
The parents’ club furnished most of the money for the art project.

2. To put furniture into.
The children furnished their room with bunk beds and matching dressers.

furnishings (n, pl) Articles of furniture for the home or office.
Most of the furnishings in my grandparents’ house are genuine antiques.


(n) A place of safety; a sanctuary.
The local school was a haven for those made homeless by the hurricane.


(v) 1. To put in place or set up.
We want to install a large skylight over the kitchen sink.

2. To place into office.
The members will install their new president at the next meeting.


(adj) Very large and solid; heavy.
A massive meteorite collided with the Mexican coast sixty-five million years ago, making a crater nearly two hundred miles across.


(v) 1. To drive away.
To repel mosquitoes, use this spray before going out in the woods.

2. To throw off; to shed.
A good raincoat is treated to repel water.

3. To disgust.
Cruelty to animals repels me.

repellent (n) Something that repels.
This repellent is supposed to keep cats off the furniture.

(ad). 1. Able to repel.
My slicker is both water repellent and warm.

2. Disgusting.
The way movies glorify violence is repellent to many people.


(v) 1. To give back.
The police restored the stolen goods to the rightful owners.

2. To bring back to the original condition.
A good polishing will restore the shine to the brass candlesticks.

restoration (n) 1. The bringing back to the original condition.
The association began the restoration of George and Martha Washington’s home in 1858.

2. The thing that is brought back to its original state.
Many of the buildings at Williamsburg are restorations from colonial America.


(v) To return an injury, usually in the same way.
When my friend hid my bat, I retaliated by hiding her softball mitt.

retaliation (n) The act of retaliating.
Should anyone attack UN peacekeeping troops, retaliation will be swift and certain.


(n) A bad smell.
The stench of rotting fish drove the investigators away from the dock.


(v) To scatter.
The wind strewed papers all over the yard.


(n) The nearby or surrounding area.
Is there a library in the vicinity of your home?

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