6 • Lesson 2 Word List


(adj) Showing too much pride in oneself.
You were arrogant to claim that you knew all the answers.

arrogance (n) A feeling of too much pride in oneself.
Declaring that you are sure to win is another example of your arrogance.


(v) To join others in refusing to support an organization.
Customers plan to boycott that store if it continues to discriminate.

(n) The act of boycotting.
The fans called off their boycott when the teams agreed to lower ticket prices.


(n) 1. A series of actions intended to accomplish a goal.
Picking up litter was the first step in the campaign to clean up the town center.

2. A series of military actions in a particular area.
The Battle of the Bulge was part of the Allied campaign to invade Germany and end the war.

(v) To take part in actions planned to accomplish a particular goal.
Students who wish to campaign for class office must submit petitions.


(n) A formal event held in honor of a special occasion.
The bride and groom exchanged rings during the wedding ceremony.


(n) 1. Control over and responsibility for care.
The stolen Picasso painting was returned to the custody of the Museum of Modern Art.

2. In the keeping of the police; in jail.
The police officer took the thief into custody.


(v) To bring shame or disgrace upon.
By lying to cover up his cheating, Sam degraded himself even more.

degrading (adj) Causing shame or disgrace.
Losing the trophy because one player cheated on a test was a degrading experience.


(v) To stop or hold; to keep from going on.
The hall monitor detained us until we could prove we had permission to leave the classroom.


(v) 1. To reach out.
The conductor extended her arms as a signal to the orchestra to be ready.

2. To offer.
I wish to extend my apologies for behaving so badly.

3. To make longer.
The exhibition was so popular that the museum decided to extend it by a week.

4. To stretch or spread outward from a certain point.
The property extends for a half mile beyond the river.


(v) To unite into a whole; especially to end the separation of people of different races.
In 1948, President Truman integrated the armed forces of the United States.

integration (n) The act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races.
The racial integration of public and private places has made our country better and stronger.


(v) To keep separate or apart.
Ranchers segregate sick animals from the herd to prevent diseases from spreading.

segregation (n) The act of keeping separate or apart.
One of the goals of the Civil Rights Movement was to end racial segregation in the United States.


(adj) 1. The highest in rank or position.
The supreme commander was happy to retire after years of responsibility.

2. Of the greatest importance.
The sea captain’s supreme mission was to get revenge on the white whale.


(n) 1. A noteworthy success.
Helen Keller’s graduation from college was a triumph.

2. The joy that winning brings.
The dancer who was invited to audition shot a look of triumph at those who were not so lucky.

(v) To win.
The winner of the national spelling bee triumphed over forty-nine other contestants.

triumphant (adj) Joyful over a victory or success.
The triumphant skater was given a hero’s welcome on her return from the Olympic Games.


(v) To make empty, as by leaving.
We will vacate the house at the end of June to make way for the people moving in.


(n) 1. The decision reached at the end of a trial.
The jury looked grim as she announced the verdict.

2. A judgment or opinion.
The verdict on the new computer is that it does twice the work in half the time.


(v) 1. To break, as a law or a promise.
Damien violated our teacher’s trust by trying to cheat on the homework.

2. To treat in an improper or disrespectful way.
The vandals who violated the cemetery by knocking over gravestones had to restore it.

violation (n) A breaking of or failing to keep something like a law or a promise.
Revealing the secret was a violation of your friend’s trust.

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