6 • Lesson 7 Word List


(n) A rough, noisy fight.
Teachers walk the halls between classes to prevent brawls between students.

(v) To fight noisily.
Players who brawl have to sit out the next game.


(adj) 1. Not planned.
Several friends got together for a casual meeting after the movie.

2. Not regular; occasional.
I have a casual job doing errands for my uncle when he needs me.

3. Suitable for everyday use; comfortable.
The store sells casual apparel for the beach.


(adj) 1. Not changing.
When I ride my bike, I try to maintain a constant speed.

2. Loyal; faithful.
The farmer’s constant companion is an affectionate dog.

3. Without a pause; unending.
A small child requires constant attention.


(v) To do well; to be better or greater than others.
Jackie Robinson excelled as both a fielder and a batter.


(v) 1. To use up.
Lost on the mountain, the climbers exhausted their supplies after two days.

2. To tire out.
A ten-mile hike will exhaust most people.

(n) The waste gases from an engine; also, the system that pumps out such waste gases.
The muffler is often the first part of the exhaust to wear out.


(adj) Able to survive under bad conditions; tough.
Sage is a hardy plant that can be left outside during the winter.


(adj) Of low to medium quality; barely passable.
Mediocre grades make it difficult to get into a good college.


(adj) Always the same; not varying; boring.
Making photocopies is monotonous work.

monotony (n) Lack of variety resulting in boredom.
Switching chores with my brother helps relieve the monotony of housework.


(v) To bring or come into being.
The custom of sending Valentine cards originated in the 1800s.

origin (n) A beginning or coming into being.
What is the origin of the story that alligators live in the New York sewers?


(v) 1. To add marks such as commas and periods to writing to make the meaning clear.
Choose the best way to punctuate this sentence.

2. To interrupt from time to time.
Claps of thunder punctuated the evening.

punctuation (n) The use of marks such as commas and periods in writing.
Using a comma instead of a semicolon is a common error in punctuation.


(adj) 1. Very hungry.
The skaters were ravenous because they’d skipped lunch.

2. Eager for whatever satisfies one’s needs or wants.
To be ravenous for praise shows a lack of confidence in oneself.


(adj) 1. Closely resembling real life.
This video game has very realistic race-car sounds.

2. Aware of things as they are; practical.
Running a Saturday car wash is a realistic way for the club to raise money.


(v) 1. To make calm and relaxed.
The principal tried to soothe the angry students by promising to consider their demands.

2. To relieve soreness; to make less painful.
Calamine lotion will soothe a sunburn.


(n) A sudden rush of animals or people, usually caused by fear.
A breeze carried the lion’s scent to the antelope and began a stampede of the herd.

(v) To take part in a stampede.
The crowd stampeded for the exit when someone yelled, “Fire!”


(n) 1. A person who has served in the armed forces.
Veterans in their uniforms marched in the Memorial Day parade.

2. A person with much experience.
The director is a veteran who has been with the dance company from its beginning.

(adj) Experienced.
We were fortunate to have several veteran musicians in our band.

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