6 • Lesson 9 Word List


(v) To increase in number or amount; to pile up, collect, or gather.
An inch of snow accumulated overnight.


(v) 1. To make worse.
The skater aggravated an old knee injury when she fell.

2. To anger or annoy.
That loud rock music from the club aggravates the neighbors.

aggravation (n) 1. Annoyance; exasperation.
My aggravation increased as the noisy construction continued outside my window.

2. A source of annoyance or exasperation.
Deer and rabbits are a continuous aggravation to rural gardeners.


(v) To save by using carefully.
Lower speed limits help conserve gasoline.

conservation (n) The saving or protection of something through careful use.
A plan for the conservation of water during the drought was unveiled at the town meeting.


(v) To harm by contact with something undesirable.
Chemicals spilled last year continue to contaminate the lake.

contamination (n) The act of or result of contaminating.
Salt used on the roads in winter could lead to the contamination of the river.


(v) To make or become smaller or less; to reduce.
The popcorn we ate after school diminished our hunger.


(adj) Severe; extreme.
Criminals receive drastic punishment in this new novel.


(adj) Spending, costing, or using more than is required.
Shawn’s buying lunch for everyone was an extravagant thing to do.

extravagance (n) 1. The quality of being wasteful or spending more than is necessary.
Emma’s extravagance in early adulthood led to poverty later.

2. A thing that costs more than one can afford.
I admit the team jacket was an extravagance, but I couldn’t resist buying it.


(adj) Careful in spending or using something.
The bill for the splendid wedding ceremony shocked my frugal relatives.


(n) Something that is harmful or dirty.
Filtering removes the impurities from water.


(n) Danger; something that is dangerous.
The sailor understood the peril involved in a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean.

imperil (v) To place in danger.
A bad driver’s ineptness imperils the passengers.

perilous (adj) Dangerous.
An expedition into enemy territory could be perilous.


(adj) Lasting or seeming to last forever or for a long time; continuous.
A perpetual rain has been falling for nine days.


(n) 1. A supply that can be used when there is a need.
Coal and lumber are natural resources.

2. Skill in dealing with difficult situations.
The teacher trusted us to be left to our own resources when she stepped outside to take a phone call.

resourceful (adj) Able to deal with difficult problems.
A resourceful person will triumph over difficulties.


(v) To replace one thing or person for another.
Cooks sometimes substitute lemon for vinegar in salad dressing.

(n) Something or someone that replaces another.
Luis will be the substitute in case another player is injured in the soccer match.

(adj) Acting in place of someone or something else.
The substitute teacher tolerated the class’s antics.


(v) 1. To keep up; to support.
Their firm belief that they would be rescued sustained them.

2. To suffer; to undergo.
The driver of the wrecked car sustained serious injuries.


(adj) 1. Necessary for continued life or prosperity.
Clean water is vital for our health.

2. Full of lively spirit.
Nelson Mandela’s vital personality enabled him to survive years of imprisonment without bitterness.

3. Of the greatest importance.
It is vital that you make a decision immediately.

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