7 • Lesson 19 Word List


(adj) 1. Working against; serving to oppose.
The response to the proposed year-round school was so adverse that the school board dropped the idea.

2. Harmful; unfavorable.
Some people have an adverse reaction to aspirin.


(adj) Remote or distant, usually by choice; showing no interest.
His aloof manner kept us from becoming close friends.

(adv) In an aloof manner.
Although he sat with the group, he stayed aloof from the discussion they were having.


(adj) Allowing a choice between two or more things.
There is an alternative route you could take to get to town, but it’s a bit longer.

(n) 1. A choice between two or more things.
Your alternatives are to come with us or stay home.

2. Any one of the things that can be chosen.
I chose the second alternative and stayed home.


(adj) Of, or relating to, dogs or related animals.
Wolves, foxes, dogs, jackals, and coyotes are members of the canine family.

(n) A member of the canine family.
I take my Old English sheepdog to a groomer who specializes in large canines.


(adj) Required by law or a firm rule.
Training is compulsory for all lifeguards.


(adj) Following one after another in order.
It rained for five consecutive days last week.


(adj) 1. Deserted; lonely; without signs of life.
There was not even a gas station on the desolate stretch of highway.

2. Filled with sorrow.
The children were desolate when the kitten got lost in the woods.


(v) 1. To send on specific business.
The senator dispatched an aide to meet with reporters.

2. To finish or complete promptly.
Zion dispatched the entire plate of spaghetti before we had tucked in our napkins.

3. To kill quickly.
The fly was dispatched with a single blow.

(n) 1. Speed in movement or performance.
You must act with dispatch if you hope to settle the matter by noon tomorrow.

2. A written message sent quickly.
A motorcyclist carried the dispatches to the address.


(n) 1. A recognition of the way things differ.
The lunchroom makes a distinction between the regular menu and the gluten-free menu.

2. Special honor or regard.
Astronaut John Glenn had the distinction of being the first American to orbit Earth.

3. Excellence of performance or ability.
Amina served as class president with distinction.


(v) 1. To put up with; to bear.
The pioneers who headed west had to endure incredible hardship along the way.

2. To go on for a long time; to last.
Despite occasional quarrels, my grandparents’ marriage endured for over fifty years.

endurance (n) The ability to put up with hardship; the quality of putting up with hardship.
There is no better test of a runner’s endurance than the marathon.


(v) To rise and fall; to keep changing.
The supply of fresh vegetables fluctuates with the seasons.

fluctuation (n) A rising and falling movement.
In the Midwest, wide temperature fluctuations are to be expected in October.


(adj) Tiring; exhausting.
Mount Washington is a grueling climb for most hikers.


(v) To handle roughly so as to cause injury.
We chased the cat away before it could maul the mouse it had caught.


(v) To take part in.
The entire class participated in the ticket sale for the school musical.

participant (n) One who takes part in.
All the participants in the Thanksgiving Day parade must be in place by 11:00 a.m.


(adj) Strong and vigorous.
My grandfather is in robust health for an eighty-year-old.


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