7 • Lesson 5 Word List


(adj) Enough; sufficient.
One blanket will be adequate on such a warm night.


(v) 1. To manage or direct.
The Red Cross administers the blood donor program.

2. To give out as treatment or assistance.
The scout leader administered first aid to the child who had cut his hand.


(v) 1. To disturb or upset.
Talk of sharks in the water agitated swimmers at the beach.

2. To move with an irregular, fast, or violent action.
Strong winds agitated the surface of the lake.

3. To stir up interest in and support for a cause.
The miners agitated for better working conditions.


(v) To give in; to surrender.
The school board capitulated to the students’ demands and changed the dress-code policy.


(n) 1. A fruit of the family that includes oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes.
A citrus is an excellent source of vitamin C.

2. A tree that produces these fruits.
Citruses grow well in Florida.

(adj) Of or relating to these fruits or trees.
The kumquat is a less well-known member of the citrus family.


(v) 1. To break up the orderly course of.
Angry protesters disrupted the president’s speech.

2. To interrupt; to bring to a temporary halt.
A strike by the drivers disrupted service on the subway.

disruptive (adj) Causing confusion or disorder.
Disruptive behavior is not acceptable in the classroom.

disruption (n) A disturbance that interrupts or causes confusion.
Work on the cell towers caused a temporary disruption of service.


(n) An unpleasant, cramped, and dilapidated place to live.
In the eleventh century, the Saxons complained that they were forced to live in hovels, while their Norman conquerers had fine homes.


(adj) Unable to read or write.
Volunteers are needed to help teach illiterate adults how to read.

illiteracy (n) Inability to read or write.
Illiteracy is practically nonexistent in Japan.


(adj) 1. Not concerned about; not caring.
The authorities can no longer afford to be indifferent to the problem of nuclear-waste disposal.

2. Neither very good nor very bad; passable.
Her indifferent grades in school worried her parents.


(adj) Of or relating to low-level, humble work.
Oliver accepted menial work with low pay, because he was glad to have a job.


(adj) Lasting or expected to last for a long time.
A child’s first permanent teeth appear at about the age of six.


(n) A period of rest; a pause.
The rain brought a welcome respite from the tremendous heat.


(adj) 1. Needing much effort; using a lot of energy.
Chopping wood is strenuous work.

2. Very active; vigorous.
The plan to close the local school met with strenuous opposition from parents.


(v) 1. To work long and hard.
Sugarcane cutters toil in the fields from dawn to dusk.

2. To make one’s way with difficulty.
We toiled up the steep hill.

(n) Hard and tiring labor.
After a lifetime of toil, my grandmother is ready to enjoy her retirement.


(adj) Needing quick action or attention.
The county has an urgent need for a new hospital.

urgency (n) The need for quick action.
The senator stressed the urgency of cleaning up the polluted waters of our country.

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