8 • Lesson 13 Word List


(adj) Intensely eager; passionate.
In spite of Miriam’s ardent praise of Dontrell, I was not convinced of his ability.

ardor (n) Passionate intensity of feeling.
Romeo’s ardor led him to take great risks to see his beloved Juliet.


(v) 1. To attack violently or verbally.
Critics assailed the book when it first appeared, but the reading public loved it.

2. To trouble in the mind.
During the test, feelings of guilt assailed Miranda as she peeked at the answers she had written on her hand.


(n) 1. Anything owned that is of value and can be sold or otherwise disposed of.
The late Mr. Kim’s assets include a valuable coin collection.

2. A quality that can be used to advantage.
Height can be a great asset in a basketball player.


(v) To exchange goods or services without the use of money.
Instead of taking cash for fixing the Walkers’ garage window, DeRay bartered for a batch of their famous gumbo.

(n) The exchange of goods or services without the use of money.
Commerce is conducted by barter in some rural areas, where many people have more fruits and vegetables than they can use themselves.


(n) A source of great wealth; something that brings great riches.
The discovery of gold in 1848 was a bonanza for the newly acquired territory that would become the state of California.


(adj) Able to be passed easily from one person to another.
They say that laughter is contagious.


(v) 1. To give careful thought to; to ponder.
Einstein contemplated the relationship between matter and energy.

2. To have a possible plan to; to intend.
While still in college, Jordana contemplated going to either medical school or law school.


(v) To discourage or prevent from taking action.
Yesterday’s rough seas deterred the divers from exploring the sunken ship.

deterrent (n) Anything that prevents or discourages.
A “Keep Off” sign acts as a deterrent against trespassers.


(n) A natural gift or ability; a talent.
The comedian’s flair for bantering with audience members has made him a popular entertainer.


(v) To be forced to give up or lose.
If you leave the stadium before the end of the concert, you forfeit the right to return.

(n) Something lost or given up as a result of an error or failing.
You have to pay a forfeit if you can’t answer the question.


(n) Something new; a new way of doing something.
Adding apps to cell phones was an innovation that transformed cell-phone technology.

innovative (adj) Marked by freshness or originality; willing to try new things.
Companies succeed by being innovative and keeping up with the latest technology.


(n) An intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement.
The trendy new video-game system caused a mania in toy stores.


(v) To thwart; to make difficulties for or find problems with.
Rosa’s efforts to start her own lawn-mowing business were stymied when the mower kept breaking down.


(adj) Alike or close in meaning; closely related.
The company boasts that its name is synonymous with quality.


(v) To quarrel in a noisy or angry way.
Sue and Mario wrangled over whose turn it was to cut the grass.

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