8 • Lesson 16 Word List


(v) To relieve or make more bearable.
Gargling with saltwater alleviates a sore throat.


(n) 1. A remedy that relieves the effects of a poison.
Scientists are looking for a snakebite antidote that might save thousands of lives.

2. Anything that offers relief from an undesirable condition.
Her surprise birthday party was an antidote to Anzi’s losing the tennis match.


(n) A very confused and noisy scene or situation.
Bedlam broke out in the auditorium among students and parents when it was announced that the school was going to be closed.


(v) To urge with gentle and repeated requests; to coax.
Willa allowed herself to be cajoled into acting as class treasurer.


(adj) Marked by an ease in speaking or writing that often shows lack of concern or sincerity.
The candidate’s glib responses to questions made it difficult to understand his opinion.


(adj) Having a tired look; worn out.
The haggard faces of the refugees spoke of many fearful days and sleepless nights.


(adj) 1. Perfectly clean; spotless.
The dining room’s white linen tablecloths were starched and immaculate at the beginning of the reception.

2. Without a flaw; faultless.
His immaculate report cards since kindergarten mean that Luis will probably be admitted to any college he applies to.


(adj) Going on without interruption; continual.
We hardly slept because of the incessant noise from the apartment downstairs.


(adj) Inclined to give in easily; lenient.
The indulgent parents bought their son every video game he asked for.

indulge (v) 1. To give in too easily to the wishes of.
My grandparents loved to indulge my brothers and me when they came to visit.

2. To yield to.
I indulged my craving for something sweet by having an ice-cream cone.


(v) 1. To sit back in a relaxed way; to sprawl.
I lolled in the hammock for most of that humid summer afternoon.

2. To hang loosely; to droop.
After the storm, the seasick passenger’s head lolled over the rail of the ship.


(n) A very small amount, especially of money.
Even though the summer job pays only a pittance, I decided to take it because I needed the experience.


(adj) 1. Having a sharp taste or smell.
A pungent sauce of pineapple and ginger was served over the pork.

2. Sharply critical; painfully direct.
The newspaper editorial contained pungent criticism of the committee’s proposed cuts in the city’s education budget.


(v) To feel regret or sorrow over.
After his outburst, he immediately rued his angry words.


(adj) Harsh and grating; loud and shrill.
The counselor’s strident voice awakened the campers every morning.


(adj) Expressing strong feeling; intense.
Their differing beliefs sometimes caused vehement arguments between the friends.

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