8 • Lesson 2 Word List


(n) 1. A wearing away or rubbing away by friction.
This protective coating helps prevent abrasion of the floor tiles.

2. A scraped or worn area.
Natalie’s fall during the basketball game resulted in an abrasion on her knee.

abrasive (adj) 1. Causing wear by rubbing.
Don’t use this abrasive cleaner on the vinyl bathtub because it will scratch the surface.

2. Harsh or rough in manner; irritating.
The bus driver’s abrasive tone made the excited children settle down in their seats.


(adj) Clothed or covered.
Clad in a black rubber suit, the diver jumped from the side of the rescue boat.


(v) To provide evidence to make more certain; to confirm.
Because he was standing at the stoplight when the accident occurred, Javier could corroborate the driver’s statement.


(adj) Done in a hurry and with little attention to detail.
Sherlock Holmes made a cursory search of the bedroom before going into the dining room to question the family.


(v) 1. To remove the water from.
We use the oven to dehydrate apples, and then we add the dried fruit to our homemade granola.

2. To cause to lose bodily fluids.
The hot, dry desert air dehydrated the hikers, who had not brought enough water.

dehydration (n) The state of being dehydrated.
Dehydration from the drought has caused the plants to wilt.


(v) 1. To take or receive from a source.
After practicing so diligently, Hugo derived great satisfaction from the enthusiastic applause following his performance.

2. To obtain through reasoning.
We derived the answer to the question by applying logic.


(v) 1. To wire or equip with electric power.
As the population of India grows, the government is working hard to make sure all areas of the country are electrified.

2. To thrill or shock.
Marissa’s skating performance, which included a layback spin and several perfectly executed triple axels, electrified the audience.


(v) To attempt earnestly.
The person we spoke to at the school office said she would endeavor to find the papers we needed.

(n) A serious, earnest effort toward a goal.
Arthur’s endeavor to score twenty points a game throughout the season was a success.


(adj) Cautious; very careful.
Mr. Wu made a gingerly attempt to finish the science experiment without spilling the liquid.

(adv) Extremely cautiously.
Ella ran her tongue gingerly over where her wisdom tooth had been extracted.


(v) To make a face expressing feelings of pain, disgust, or contempt.
Hana grimaced when her computer froze and she realized she’d lost her book report.

(n) A facial expression that seems to express pain, contempt, or disgust.
A grimace crossed his face when he twisted his ankle on the sidewalk.


(adj) Causing horror or disgust.
The book told the gruesome details of living in Europe during the time of the Black Plague.


(n) 1. A list of possessions or goods on hand.
Before buying school supplies for the coming year, we make an inventory of all the supplies we already have.

2. The stock of goods on hand.
The store’s inventory of sheets and blankets was very low after the winter sale.

(v) To make a complete list of.
Once a year, the librarian inventories books and software in the resource center.


(v) 1. To take on the qualities of another; to imitate.
AstroTurf simulates real grass.

2. To pretend.
Although Riana simulated friendship, I wondered if she just wanted to copy my homework.

simulated (adj) Made to look genuine while being artificial.
Simulated leather looks and feels like the real thing.

simulation (n) An imitation of a possible situation.
The simulation of an explosion gave the emergency crews a chance to practice rescue procedures.


(v) 1. To give up or give in to; to yield.
After twenty-four hours on their feet, the relief workers succumbed to exhaustion, falling soundly asleep on their cots.

2. To cease to exist; to die.
Smallpox was so pervasive in the eighteenth century that many people succumbed.


(v) To suppose something without sufficient evidence.
Heloise surmised that her visitors were late because of traffic.

(n) A guess.
My surmise is that they are planning a surprise party for my birthday.

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