8 • Lesson 7 Word List


(n) An abnormal fear of narrow, enclosed spaces.
Although Juanita is in the Navy, her claustrophobia prevents her from serving in submarines.


(n) An associate or coworker of similar status.
On her birthday, Mom’s colleagues surprised her by taking her out to lunch.


(v) 1. To lower oneself to a position one considers inferior.
Sarita said she would never condescend to respond to the jealous person who stole her new shoes.

2. To behave in an offensively superior manner.
During rehearsals, the star of the show never condescended to join the rest of the cast for lunch; instead he ate alone in his dressing room.

condescending (adj) Showing an offensively superior manner.
Lucinda’s condescending attitude is not what we want in our elementary school tutors.


(adj) 1. Conditional; depending on something else.
Jackson’s plans for attending the university were contingent on receiving a scholarship.

2. Likely, but not certain to happen; possible.
If it rains, our contingent plan is to move the strawberry festival from the school lawn to the auditorium.

(n) A group that is part of a larger one.
The Ethiopian contingent led the parade of Olympic athletes into the stadium.


(v) To discourage or intimidate.
Learning that she needed medical treatment did not daunt Miranda but instead gave her hope for her future.

daunting (adj) So difficult or dangerous as to discourage or intimidate.
The people who joined Lewis and Clark’s daunting quest were truly courageous.


(n) 1. A downpour of rain; a flood.
Opening the dam just north of the Grand Canyon sent a deluge to the dry river beds in the canyon.

2. A flood of anything.
When the Moghadams advertised their new car for such a low price, they received a deluge of offers to buy.

(v) To flood or overwhelm.
As she convalesced from her surgery, Delia’s friends deluged her with cards, phone calls, and visits.


(v) To clear away; to remove or get rid of, as if by scattering.
I wanted Tanis to reassure me, but her letter, instead of dispelling my fears, increased them.


(v) To give a title, nickname, or description to.
The pirate Edward Teach has been dubbed “Blackbeard.”


(n) 1. A sounding of trumpets or other brass instruments.
When the president strides into the auditorium, he is greeted with loud fanfare.

2. Any showy display.
The props manager, working behind the scenes without fanfare, was essential to the overall effect of the play.


(n) 1. A young bird just learning to fly.
The fledglings took short trial flights over the yard from their nest on the porch.

2. A young and inexperienced person.
The reporter, a fledgling, forgot to get the eyewitness’s name.

(adj) New and untested.
My fledgling website has been very busy this month.


(adj) Empty; shallow or silly.
Susan, bored by the inane chatter of her classmates, went back to reading her book.

inanity (n) Foolishness; a silly or pointless act.
Hearing the inanity of his own response made Bruno understand how exhausted and in need of sleep he really was.


(n) Courage to bear up under difficult circumstances; spirit.
In spite of the bully’s threats, the children showed their mettle by refusing to say anything about their friend.


(adj) Small and unimportant, not worth noticing.
The team’s mistakes in the final tournament were negligible, having no effect on the result.


(v) To draw out or lengthen (in time).
Our trip was protracted unnecessarily because my dad drove right past the correct exit.


(n) A copy or reproduction, especially one on a smaller scale than the original.
A replica of the Statue of Liberty stood on my grandmother’s shelf, a reminder of her first glimpse of her new country.


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