9 • Lesson 12 Word List


(n) Misfortune; hardship.
In my favorite novel, the heroine triumphs over adversity.


(adj) Most important; chief.
A cardinal rule for motorcyclists is to always wear a helmet.


(adj) Believable; reliable.
Lulu was no longer credible because she had been dishonest so many times.

credibility (n)
The online university lost all credibility when news broke of how a child was able to buy a degree with just a few clicks.


(v) To show or feel understanding of another’s feelings or problems.
People all over the country empathized with those who had been injured in the train crash.

empathy (n)
Shia felt no empathy for the foolish characters in the book.


(n) 1. Any of the natural powers of the mind and body, such as sight or hearing.
Despite his eighty-five years, he still retained all his faculties.

2. An inborn ability; a knack.
Ms. Gidley’s faculty for languages makes her a valuable employee in our office in Poland.

3. All the teachers of a school.
Professor Gomez joined the university faculty in 1993 as a chemistry lecturer.


(adj) Very distressing or acutely painful.
Some of the war scenes in the movie were so harrowing I almost left the theater.


(v) To damage, weaken, or lessen.
Fewer than six hours of sleep can impair a person’s ability to drive.

impairment (n)
Her hearing impairment developed during an illness.


(v) To reach a conclusion through reasoning.
Because you never return my phone calls and are always too busy to do anything with me, I infer that you are ending our friendship.

inference (n)
The only inference to be drawn from the principal’s speech about budget-cutting was that no money would be allocated to a new computer lab.


(n) Knowing or sensing something without the use of reason; an insight.
Following his intuition, Indranil chose the path to the left and soon was rewarded by a glimpse of the pond he had been seeking.

intuitive (adj)
Antonella’s intuitive decision to scrap the text of her speech and speak without notes proved to be a wise one.


(adj) Plain to see; evident.
Poverty is manifest in many countries with large populations and limited resources.

(v) To make clear; to reveal.
Depression often manifests itself as puzzling fatigue and apathy.


(n) A very slight change in feeling or meaning; a gradation.
Juliet’s violin teacher praised her for bringing out the nuances of the Schubert sonata.


(adj) Very destructive or harmful.
Doctors fully acknowledge the pernicious effects of smoking on health.


(n) Comfort or relief in sorrow or distress; consolation.
Having an energetic puppy to play with gave the children solace after their cocker spaniel died of old age.


(n) A methodically and thoroughly written discussion of a topic.
Dr. Yi’s treatise on poisonous toads garnered much praise.


(n) The popular fashion of the time; wide acceptance or favor.
Beehive hairdos, while quite in vogue in the 1950s, are rarely seen today.


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