9 • Lesson 18 Word List


(v) 1. To stick to; stay attached.
I had to use tape to make sure the stamp adhered to the envelope.

2. To follow closely or faithfully.
Millions of people in India still adhere to the nonviolent principles of Gandhi, the Hindu leader who died in 1948.

adherence (n)
The Amish are a sect known for their adherence to a simple lifestyle that rejects cars, for example, preferring horses and carriages.

adherent (n) A follower or supporter of an idea.
The proposal to eliminate the theater program has few adherents, so Mr. Speca is averse to going ahead with it.


(n) Complete self-confidence and poise.
Although she was nervous, the thirteen-year-old gymnast shook hands with the president with the aplomb of a diplomat.


(v) To shake or wave in a threatening way.
Katharine would brandish her fist at the sky every time the rain canceled a soccer game.


(v) To bring up for discussion; to begin to talk about.
Yuriko decided to wait until after dinner to broach the subject of an increase in her allowance.


(n) An ardent follower, supporter, or enthusiast.
Asif is an ardent devotee of classic rock-and-roll.


(adj) Unsure of oneself; shy; reserved in manner.
Even though he was a world-renowned pianist, Rudolf Serkin had a diffident manner.

diffidence (n)
When he walked onto the stage, his shy smile and head tilted to one side testified to his diffidence.


(n) An elaborate and spectacular display or event.
The opening ceremony of the Olympic Games is an extravaganza viewed by millions all over the world.


(n) 1. Honesty; trustworthiness.
People may not have agreed with the governor’s political views, but no one questioned her integrity.

2. The condition of being whole or complete.
My English teacher disapproves of rewriting a published book to make it easier to read because he says it violates the integrity of the work.


(adj) Expressing sorrow; mournful.
We finally allowed the dog on the couch with us because his plaintive whining was making us feel bad.


(n) (usually plural) A demonstration of strong approval or praise.
The ice skater raised her arms and bowed slightly to acknowledge the plaudits of the crowd.


(n, pl) The symbols, objects, or special costumes worn by or associated with a group; special clothing.
The guards at Buckingham Palace, in London, are in full regalia as they march back and forth.


(adj) Dazzling in appearance.
My grandmother was resplendent in a dress of burgundy velvet at her ninetieth birthday party.


(adj) Less important; secondary.
The actress said she would willingly take a subordinate role in a play if she found the character interesting.

(n) A person under the command or control of another.
The general had a reputation for being unusually fair and respectful to his subordinates.

(v) To give less importance to; to place in a lesser position.
Sometimes parents have to subordinate their own interests to those of their children.


(v) To defeat or overcome.
With the help of Anne Sullivan, Helen Keller was able to surmount physical impairments.


(adj) Capable of being defended; reasonable.
Sebastian was such an effective debater that he could argue a position that at first did not seem at all tenable, and then be utterly convincing.

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