9 • Lesson 19 Word List


(n) The highest point of something.
Visitors can climb to the apex of the temple of the sun, a pyramid in Mexico.


(n) A secret agreement between parties for a criminal or deceitful purpose.
The four companies were cited for acting in collusion to raise prices illegally.


(v) To burn to ashes.
Before recycling became the norm, we used to incinerate all our old newspapers in the furnace.


(v) To charge with a crime.
After a preliminary hearing, the defendant was indicted for shoplifting.

indictment (n)
In 1974, a grand jury brought an indictment against several top-level officials in the Watergate scandal.


(adj) Having to do with judges, the law, or the courts.
Standard judicial attire in the United States is a long black robe.


(n) One who chooses to suffer or die rather than give up beliefs or principles.
Joan of Arc was the French martyr who was put to death by the English in 1431.

(v) To be put to death for one’s beliefs.
Christians in ancient Rome were martyred for their religious beliefs by being executed.


(n) 1. A large number of people or things.
This report on global warming covers a multitude of topics.

2. A large group of people; a crowd.
Helicopters flew overhead as the president addressed the multitude.


(v) To do away with; to cancel.
The Citadel, a South Carolina military college, rescinded its ban on admitting women following a court order in 1995.


(v) To have great respect and affection for.
His contemporaries revered George Washington for his character and leadership.


(n) 1. A descendant or heir.
Edward, the Black Prince, was a scion of the British royal house of Plantagenet.

2. A cutting from a plant used to produce new growth.
The scions you grafted onto the apple trees should produce fruit in three years.


(adj) Dirty or disgusting.
The sordid details of the senator’s bribes were revealed in his diary.


(adj) Smoothly polite; blandly pleasing.
She had such a suave demeanor that she charmed almost everyone she met.


(n) A distorted example or imitation.
It is a travesty of justice that the defendant was found “not guilty.”


(v) 1. To free from blame, guilt, or suspicion.
The suspect was released when an eyewitness came forward with testimony to vindicate him.

2. To show to be true or right.
The company was asked to vindicate its claim that its products were safe.


(adj) Having a sharp, biting quality; bitterly sarcastic.
I concluded from the vitriolic reviews that the play would not make it to Broadway.

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