9 • Lesson 20 Word List

bogus

(adj) Counterfeit or fake.
The art historian discovered a bogus Rembrandt hanging in the museum.

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demise

(n) The end of existence or activity; death.
Mark Twain wryly observed that reports of his demise were greatly exaggerated.

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devise

(v) To form or arrange in the mind.
The personnel manager had to devise a training program for all the new workers.

enshrine

(v) To cherish as precious or sacred.
The Vietnam Memorial, in Washington, D.C., helps enshrine the memory of those who died in the Vietnam War.

evince

(v) 1. To show clearly; to express.
Julio evinces his talent for baking with his delicious cookies.

2. To provoke.
The comedian’s zany antics failed to evince a laugh from his audience.

irrevocable

(adj) Impossible to change.
Your birthday is an irrevocable fact of life.

martial

(adj) Having to do with war, armies, or fighting.
Karate and judo are two of the martial arts.

memorabilia

(n, pl) Objects collected over a period of time that recall particular events.
Thomas Edison’s memorabilia can be seen at his winter home in Fort Myers, Florida.

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mundane

(adj) Of or relating to ordinary, everyday matters.
Checking a report for spelling errors is a mundane but necessary task.

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patronize

(v) 1. To be a supporter or regular customer of.
I patronize the downtown stores rather than the ones at the new mall.

2. To treat in a condescending way.
“I am not your dear young lady,” she remonstrated, “and please don’t patronize me by addressing me that way.”

querulous

(adj) Apt to find fault; complaining.
I commiserated with her for having to put up with her visiting uncle’s querulous demands.

quirk

(n) 1. A peculiar or eccentric mannerism.
Always wearing two different-colored socks is one of his quirks.

2. An odd or sudden turn of events.
A quirk of fate brought us both to the spot where we had first met ten years earlier.

refute*

(v) To prove to be false; to disprove.
I refuted her claim that taking vitamins was a waste of time by showing her the latest research from the medical group.

sanction

(n) 1. Approval or permission from an authority.
The principal gave her sanction for the establishment of a student council.

2. An action taken by one nation against another.
Economic sanctions against South Africa were lifted when it ended its policy of apartheid.

(v) To approve or allow.
The United States government refused to sanction North Korea while the communist regime is in power.

tome

(n) A book, especially one that is large.
I admired the tome’s sumptuous, satiny jacket but had trouble wading through its twelve hundred pages.

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