9 • Lesson 4 Word List


(n) An old saying that has come to be accepted as true; a proverb.
Preparing to move again, we comforted ourselves with the adage “A rolling stone gathers no moss.”


(n) Good will and warm feelings among friends.
A spirit of camaraderie filled the room where the group gathered for its high-school reunion.


(v) 1. To struggle with.
Mail carriers sometimes have to contend with bothersome dogs.

2. To maintain or assert.
Opponents of nuclear power plants contend that the risk of a malfunction in one is too great.

contention (n) 1. A conflict or struggle.
Miwa and Jessie are in contention for first place on the honor roll.

2. A point made in an argument.
It is my contention that the ghost you claim to have seen was merely a shadow on the wall.


(adj) Not necessary; irrelevant.
When you revise your written instructions, eliminate any extraneous details.


(n) Noisy confusion; uproar.
Fans thronged onto the field in a hubbub of excitement when their team won the pennant.


(v) 1. To follow a winding course.
The Mississippi River meanders from northern Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico.

2. To wander aimlessly.
Shoppers at the sidewalk sale meandered through the street looking for bargains.


(adj) Having or giving off a smell.
Odoriferous fumes spewed from the truck’s exhaust.


(n) 1. Personal belongings.
We accumulated so much paraphernalia that the closets couldn’t hold it all.

2. Equipment associated with a particular activity.
We keep our riding paraphernalia in the barn.


(adj) Careful of and attentive to details, especially ones relating to good manners and behavior.
A punctilious host tries to leave nothing to chance when preparing for guests.


(v) To regain health or strength.
Her doctor expects Amanda to recuperate quickly.


(v) To entertain or delight.
Dishi regaled his friends with his funny stories.


(adj) Doing or requiring a lot of sitting.
Operating a computer is sedentary work.


(adj) Marked by simplicity and lack of luxury.
The sergeant described the Spartan way of life to the new recruits at the training camp.


(adj) Relating to the everyday world as opposed to that which is spiritual or eternal.
Medieval kings were the temporal rulers of their states, but in religious matters they accepted the Pope’s authority.


(adj) 1. Turned or bent to one side in distaste or humor.
He gave a wry smile as he admitted believing such a far-fetched tale.

2. Amusing in a quiet but sharp way.
The poem’s wry wit made me smile inwardly.

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