9 • Lesson 8 Word List


(adj) Clever at dealing with difficult situations; adept; skillful.
Her adroit handling of the boat saved us from going onto the rocks.


(v) To insult or to offend deliberately.
There is no better way to affront your teammates than to suggest that they are indolent.

(n) A deliberate insult or offensive act.
We will not ignore the affront to our family expressed in this letter.


(n) An activity pursued for pleasure; a hobby.
Serious artists say that painting is both their profession and their avocation.


(n) A prolonged, impassioned struggle for what is believed to be a just cause.
John Brown led a crusade to emancipate enslaved people.

(v) To engage in such a struggle.
Paulo had crusaded nonstop to eliminate prejudice from his workplace.


(adj) Supplying a final answer; conclusive.
Some scholars believe that the definitive biography of the poet Sylvia Plath has not yet been written.


(n) Behavior; bearing.
She must have been in shock, because her demeanor didn’t change in the slightest as she watched her home go up in flames.


(adj) Having or demonstrating extensive knowledge; learned.
The author provided an erudite account of the looting of artworks during World War II.

erudition (n)
His erudition is evident in more than one subject.


(v) 1. To install in office, sometimes with a formal ceremony.
The president of the university was inducted into office in the morning.

2. To admit to a society or to military service.
Each year the National Academy of Science inducts a few celebrated researchers.

induction (n)
The induction ceremony into the Baseball Hall of Fame was a thrilling experience for the retired pitcher.


(v) 1. To fall or slip from a certain level of conduct or accomplishment.
After a month of regular exercise, we lapsed into inactivity.

2. To come to an end; to expire.
I was disappointed to learn that the clothing sale had lapsed before I could make it to the store.

(n) 1. A minor mistake; a slip.
A lapse of memory caused me to miss the television show last week.

2. A pause or interval.
With such voluble students, there was never a lapse in class discussion.


(adj) Ready to fight, especially for a cause.
My parents, militant supporters of public education, worked with other parents and the teachers to improve the elementary schools in our town.

(n) One who is ready to fight for a cause.
Militants occupied the president’s office, demanding changes in the college curriculum.


(n) A social outcast.
Her classmates treated Maria like a pariah when she told the teacher that someone had cheated on the test.


(n) 1. A person who shows remarkable talent at an early age.
Mozart was a musical prodigy who began composing at age five.

2. An amazing or extraordinary thing or event.
Everyone flocked to the newly invented Ferris wheel, which was regarded as a prodigy of the age of steel.


(masc, n); protégée (fem, n) One whose training or career is helped along by another.
Tim Cook, a protégé of Steve Jobs, took over the running of Apple.


(adj) 1. Rough and unpleasant to the ear.
The raucous cries of the family’s parrot startled the guests.

2. Boisterous and disorderly.
Before the lights went out, our camp counselor let us have a pillow fight but made sure things didn’t become too raucous.


(adj) Expressed without words; implied.
You gave your tacit approval by not raising any objections to our plan.

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